General Education

TO THINK: CONCEPTUAL, CRITICAL & CREATIVE THINKING

Dr. Grant T. Hammond
Air War College
29 July 2004

Why This is Important

Even in combat, how well you think is more important to how well you fight than how physically fit you are
A wrong decision, an unasked question, a forgotten task, an incomplete analysis, or a poor synthesis can kill you
You must exert mental sweat as well as physical sweat to be “Fit to Fight”
Good decisions require good thinking!
To Think

To form or conceive in the mind
To meditate, ponder, analyze or examine
To have in mind as a plan, intent, or purpose; intend
To hold as an opinion; believe; suppose
To reflect upon the matter in question
To anticipate or expect
To make a mental discovery
Idea
any conception existing in the mind as a result of mental understanding, awareness or activity
a thought, conception or notion
an impression
a plan of action; an intention
Why Do We Use A Light Bulb For An Idea?

“Let there be light!”
See where there was dark before
Come to know and understand because we can see better…
Who invented the light bulb?
Thomas Alva Edison in 1879
America’s most famous inventor
Light bulb = invention = idea
Conceptual

Pertaining to concepts or the forming of concepts
CONCEPT–
a general notion or idea; conception
an idea of something formed by mentally combining all its characteristics or particulars: a construct
a directly conceived or intuited object
Why Conceptual Thinking Is Difficult
We emphasize analysis
taking things apart
Need to emphasize synthesis
putting things together
Must think both ways
Otherwise, we are “half wits”
We don’t emphasize it, reinforce it, reward it and practice it
Utility and Value

Concepts should be broad enough to be useful
Concepts should be specific enough to be of value
The “Goldilocks Problem”
Like programming
Able to be amended and modified
Not limited by time and place
Utility and Value
Concepts should be broad enough to be useful
Concepts should be specific enough to be of value
The “Goldilocks Problem”
Like programming
Able to be amended and modified
Not limited by time and place
Example

Government is a concept
It refers to a process, a means of decision making
It is not bounded by time, size, place but links means and ends
It is about both purposes and processes
It permits comparison across cultures
Focuses on how people make rules for living together
Critical
Inclined to find fault or judge with severity
Occupied with or skilled in criticism
Involving skilful judgment as to truth, merit. etc.
Pertaining to or of the nature of crisis
Involving grave uncertainty, risk, peril, etc.; dangerous

The good theories from famous people and theorists:

One half of the world cannot undertand the pleasures of the other.”Love is like quicksilver in the hand. Leave the fingers open and it stays. Clutch and it darts away”. “We are too concern with what’s what and what will be. That we say yesterday is history, tomorrow is mystery, and today is gift. That is why we call present”. “A journey of one thousand miles begins with a single step.”””Get used to think that success is only a step and must be achieved, undoubtedly a bright future will be in front of you.”

“Generally, the problems that we imagine will happen is just shadows. Anything that happens remains optimistic.”
Health is the greatest gift,contentment the greatest wealth, faithfulness the best relationship.”””Get used to think that success is only a step and must be achieved, undoubtedly a bright future will be in front of you.”

“Generally, the problems that we imagine will happen is just shadows. Anything that happens remains optimistic.””I am successful because I did not care about the first rejection or refusal to-100. I never give up.””People who behave pessimistic before the age of 48 years is that people know too much. Be optimistic, while those after the age of 48 years is that people know too little.”
How to succeed in the lif
1. Passion (do it for love, not money)
You must be passionate about what you do. It is the passion that will make you shine brightly and attract success towards you. Money should never be the driving factor, if you are doing what you are doing for money then you are heading down the wrong road. Successful people would pay to do what they do! Ironically when you do what you love the money will follow.

2. Work
It is a myth that people are born lucky or just fall into the right places. It is hard work that separates the exceptional from the average. Luck for the most part is created through continuous effort, it’s all work. This is why passion and love are so important, they provide the motivation to do the work.

3. Good
Become good at what you do. Work hard and become an expert or master in your chosen field. Practice, practice, practice. Become the best.

4. Focus
Know what you want, know why you want it and keep focused on it.

5. Push
Push yourself, physically, mentally, emotionally and any other way you can think of. You have to push, push, push. Continuous effort and determination is essential. You have to push through shyness and self doubt and overcome obstacles regardless of how big they seem.

6. Serve
You become successful by creating a necessary service, you can only do this by serving others. The more you serve, the more valuable you become. If you wish to become wealthy you must serve others with something of value.

7. Ideas
You must come up with ideas to solve problems. To do this you must listen, observe and ask questions. It is often said that it takes money to make money, this in my opinion is not entirely true, it takes creativity to make money. Ideas are valuable.

8. Persist
Persistence is most certainly needed, you will suffer disappointment, setbacks and rejection, you must persist through all of this. It is the same for everybody, those who succeed are ultimately those who can pick themselves up the most times.
e:
II.Creative Problem Solving
Creativity is thinking of something different, using new approaches to solve problems. Many inventions have involved a breakthrough in traditional thinking and resulted an “aha” experience. For example, Albert Einstein broke with tradition by trying many unusual approaches that revolutionized scientific thought. Your attitudes can form mental blocks that keep you from being creative. If you find yourself imprisoned by routines, afraid to look foolish, and reluctant to challenge the rules or allow failure, you may be in a rut. Before long, you may abandon your dreams; ignore your intuition; deny problems; and follow a too-safe, no-risk path. Try the following seven strategies to unlock your mind’s natural creativity.
1. Use games and puzzles.

Foundation of Education YearVI  

Foundation of Education is one of the important subjects that we study in year IV semester I in the field of teaching. If we look on the surface of this subject, we notice that this subject is very important because it provides a lot of knowledge not only in teaching, but also in society. Also, it makes people understand the value of education. Indeed, foundation of education year IV semester I provide a lot of knowledge in teaching such as we understand the kinds of learners, and what techniques we should teach adults, children, and adolescences. Moreover, we know the theories in educational psychology, and learning, teaching process and styles. So, today I show how foundation of education year IV semester I will help us in our future teaching career. There are many advantages of foundation of education help us, but I choose only three concepts that I think it is influent on us such as knowing the socialization, learning, teaching process, and styles, and understanding the kinds of education.

As a matter of fact, foundation of education year IV semester I help us in our future teaching career such as knowing the socialization. In fact, knowing the socialization is very important for our teaching career because we k now how children socialize, and more particularly we can teach something that fits to society. Furthermore, knowing the socialization clearly is very vital in teaching because we understand what people need in society,  and how well socialization develops, and especially we know the social interaction and socialization into gender. Indeed, when we understand and know about those points clearly, it makes us easy to achieve our future teaching career because teaching does not teach only teach what states in books, but also we need to know something that relates to the society. As we know, children interact to the society and make themselves have values in society as well. Another point is that, foundation of education makes know what we should do in teaching and how we educate learners to avoid making something bad in society, and the way that we can make them understand the gender. So all in all, foundation of education yearIV semesterI helps us in our future teaching career is to broaden knowledge about   socialization in order to make us easy to teach learners to understand the society.

Moreover, foundation of education provides us to understand learning, teaching process, and styles. Being teachers, it is essential that we should understand learning, teaching process and styles because we can know the educational psychology. If we do not know the psychology, it is difficult to teach students because we do not know what students need, and how to make them interesting in their studies, and what we should teach children, adolescences, and adults, and especially the way that we motivate them. In addition, foundation of education helps us to develop the field, and know a lot about theories in educational psychology, so we are able to make students know how to learn, and also we have enough ability to transfer our knowledge to students. What is more, we know the styles that we should use to teach students, and we can deal with problems which occur in our teaching. Besides, when we study this subject, we have cognitive development; in the meantime, we know the need for organization, so it is easy to teach students that it relates to the real world, and the demand of the market. More particularly we can create a positive learning environment. Sometimes lessons are not interesting, and students come into the classes but they do not concentrate on the lesson. They just make noise and trouble for other classmates, and teachers; therefore, when we know the learning, teaching process, and styles, we can deal with this situation successfully, and especially all plans for motivating students  are steps toward preventing problems; thus, when we are able to create a positive learning environment, it is good for teachers. That is why, when we understand the learning, teaching process, and styles, they can help[ us in our future teaching career.

In addition, foundation of  education yearIV semesterI helps us to understand the kinds of education. Knowing the kinds of education is important things that teachers need to know. As a matter of fact, there are two kinds of education. One is called general education, and another is vocational education. Being teachers, we must understand the kinds of education clearly because we need to know how to teach students. We teach general education first or vocational education, and what is general education, and vocational education? And what is the purpose of these kinds of education. Before we teach vocational education, we need to teach general education because general education provides basis knowledge, and after we finish general education, we can continue to study vocational education. Vocational education provides skills that relate to our living in society, but we can study this kind of education easily if we complete general education successfully. Indeed, general education aims at producing intelligent, responsible, well-informed citizens who take an active interest in the world around them. It is designed to transmit a common cultural heritage rather than to develop trained specialists. Almost all elementary education is general education. In every country, elementary school pupils are taught skills they will use throughout life, such as reading, writing, and arithmetic. They learn moral values and the rights and duties of citizenship. They also receive instruction in a variety of subjects, including geography, history, and science. In industrialized countries, almost all young people continue their general education in secondary school. Most college students are also required to take some general education courses. There are many subjects that we study in general education. These include the humanities, mathematics, and the biological, physical, and social sciences. Besides, vocational education aims primarily at preparing individuals for a job. Some high school, called vocational high schools, specialize in vocational programs. Vocational high school students are also required to take some general education courses. Community colleges and specialized schools offer advanced vocational and technical training. Universities and separate professional schools prepare students for careers in such fields as architecture, business, engineering, law, medicine, nursing, teaching, and theology. Vocational education is important in countries striving to develop an economy based on modern technology. It is especially important in developing countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. To help build their country’s economy, students are encouraged to take courses in such fields as agriculture and industry.

In conclusion, foundation of education yearIV semester I is very important and helpful for our future teaching career because it provides a lot of knowledge such as knowing the socialization, learning, teaching process and styles, and understanding the kinds of education. Those three concepts are important for us in order to be teachers in the future, and we broaden our knowledge. Moreover, we can know how to communicate with people, and the needs of people, especially we can understand the psychology of human beings, so it is easy to know the kind of people. And what does this person like and dislike? Personally, I think that foundation of education year IV semester I is important for all learners, and especially for learners who want to be teachers. Actually this subject does not only provide knowledge in teaching, but also the way we live in society and the knowledge relates to the real world. So, all learners should learn or buy it to learn at home by themselves. I strongly believe that foundation of education will help us in our future teaching career, and we will succeed in our teaching.

ទាញឯកសារEnglish

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applied-linguistics-yeariv-assignment

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