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CAMBODIA IMPROVES HUMAN RESOURCES
The human resources development and quality of education have become key topics for discussion in driving the high growth and sustainable development for Cambodia in the perspectives of opportunities and challenges.

The topic was discussed during the 2011 Cambodia Outlook Research Conference in Phnom Penh on 16 March, organized by Cambodian Development Research and Institute and ANZ Royal Bank. H.K. Dr. Hang Chuon Naron, Secretary of State for the Ministry of Economy and Finance and Permanent Vice Chairman of Supreme National Economic Council, said that the human resources development would be a source contributing to the future growth of the Cambodia economy.
“We have to match the labor market responsiveness and education,” he stressed. He added that vocational education, training and tertiary education need to be dealt with. And that will respond to the country’s growing need for a skilled and educated workforce.”It also will be fundamental to our success,”he noted.

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

Tourism earns significant income to the world economies, and it is developing very fast throughout the world. Most countries that have potential tourism attractions are trying to attract visitors in many different ways. The growth of tourism is due to many factors such as increase in leisure time, increase in discretionary income, and improvement of transportation technologies that encourage people to travel. This leads to improvement in many related components of tourism including variety accommodation, attractive destinations, catering services, tour operations and travel agencies, government and non government organizations which play role as the facilitator ensuring to provide a comfortable environment to visitors in the host countries. Among these factors, event and convention preparation is also one of the most important factors that can strongly improve the tourism field. For example, do you know how many people join world-cup football match and Olympic or Asian games? And how much people spend to afford to see, to stay, and to eat in each event?
While tourism is an important source of income for most countries in the world, tourism is a fragile sector that is easily affected from other outside environments. It is fast to grow and also quickly declines. The Number of tourists is always growing in high season and decreases very quickly in low season. Moreover, there will be a very bad decline in the number of tourists if there is warning from natural disasters, and frightening diseases. The tsunami is an example that took numerous tourists’ lives in many countries. However, the event and convention industry seems to not really be influenced by outside factors. Today, the convention industry is regarded as one of the most buoyant sectors of the tourism industry. It is least responsive to price changes and helps to reduce “peak-trough” seasonal patterns.
The event and convention industry expresses its growing rate in Asia from 1954 to 1999. The Union of International Association (UIA) is an international industry association that has collected statistics on meetings and conventions for more than forty years.

International Conference by Continent, 1954-1999 (% of market share)
1954 1968 1974 1982 1992 1999
Europe 74 70 65 65 61 57
North America 11 13 14 14 14 16
South Africa 8 5 5
5 6 5
Asia 4 8 9 11 12 13
Africa 3 3 4 3 5 5
Australia 1 1 3 3 2 4
Table 1.1 International Conference by Continent, 1954-1999 (% of market share)
Source: Provided by UIA Congress Department in 2001; compiled from International Congress Calendar archives and Yearbook of International organization.

In the last several years, the event and convention industry seems to be improving in Cambodia. Many kind of events were celebrated and conferences, seminars, meetings, exhibitions are frequently hosted by Cambodia. These are the reasons why many buildings are established to serve as convention centers.

CHAPTER II
THE PROBLEM

2.1 Significance and need for study
Because of an increasing population in business operations, the communication between business firms, government, and non-government agencies have inspired the event and convention field to become well-known. Therefore, research related to the event and convention management or MICE management is so important and beneficial. First, it provides gain economic because event industry is rapidly growing in the tourism sector which generates much profit for the country. Moreover, the event industry provides jobs with high salaries that it can increase the GDP of the country. That is why the event industry contributes economic gain to the host country. Furthermore, event facilities are very important in generating revenue to hotels in the host destination because event and convention facilities are a big part of the hotel. The increase in demand of event and convention preparation leads to high fees for preparation. By the way, event management is competitive and challenging in the global market. In Cambodia, event and convention preparation is generating great interest. Even though we don’t have modern and standard technology in the preparation, we still see the fast growth of the event and convention industry in Cambodia.
However, we don’t have many related documents which are written about event and convention management in Cambodia. We also rarely see previous researches that study on this topic. Therefore, we conduct this research to find out more about it, especially in Cambodia context. It is better for Cambodia to put the eye on this industry while it is becoming potential element for economic growth. In order to clearly explore the event management process, we will do the research at NAGA World Hotel which is one of the five stars hotels located in Phnom Penh. This research will let us know about how to conduct events at NAGA World Hotel.

2.2 Problem statement

While the tourism industry is growing within many related components, the convention and event industry is one of its elements which are very interesting. The convention industry is growing fast due to the increasing demand for event arrangement services and facilities for preparing each event. Many constructions are now being built and equipped with high technology to support the demand. At the same time, professional event planners are also important in event preparation, so it starts to be challenging in the competitive market. Indeed, in Cambodia convention services play a significant role in both government and the private sector in conducting meetings, conventions, exhibitions, concerts, and other events. Each event has to be very well arranged and well prepared, which includes good services and facilities, and professional agenda. To do this, it requires specialist skills in planning and managing the events. However, the event and convention industry in Cambodia has not really improved because of a lack of convention centers and poor technology if compared with other countries. However, it is developing day by day through the increasing of convention centers and event preparation services. In Cambodia, NAGA Word hotel is a hotel that just established and it also provides convention rooms for rent and professional event planners.
NAGA World Hotel is a new entrant that just beginning to provide event and convention preparation, but it seems to be very active in planning events in Cambodia. At the time that convention industry is growing very fast in demand, NAGA World can get a large market among all the hotels that offer the same services. This, shows that it would have competitive advantages and special techniques to conduct events effectively. That is the reason why we aim to do this research, to find how NAGA World hotel conducts each event professionally and how the challenges being met need to be improved. The research has focused through the following research questions:
1. How each event is conducted in NAGA World Hotel?
2. What are the challenges in conducting each event?

2.3 Objectives
The research has been done through the following main research objectives:
• Be able to describe activities involve in pre-event, on-site event and post- event
• To understand the challenges which are always met in planning and how they affect the customer satisfaction
To evaluate the event arrangement performance through customer satisfaction survey and evaluated meeting. •

2.4 Limitation of study
Because event and convention management is a big research topic, it is hard to do general and big research. We tried to narrow down our topic into the specific part and period of time. Moreover, we study only how NAGA World Hotel play role as facility and complement service provider. The research focused on MICE Coordination during 1 July 2010 to 15 July 2010. We have done the observation and interview with personnel involved.

2.5 Definition of term used
Attraction: refer to historical, cultural, natural scenic or recreational entertainment center for people (Nickerson, 1996, p. 311).
Banquet:
Convention is an event in which meeting are combined with exhibition (Cruz, 2006, p. 1).
Discretionary income: The money that a person can spend for one pleases (Nickerson, 1996, p. 27).
Discretionary time: is the times away from work and other obligations (Nickerson, 1996, p. 26).
Exhibition: is the event that design to bring people together to where they show or demonstrate their product, services, plans, outputs, statistics and other kind of goods and services (Somethea, Chanrith, & Vanvireak, 2008, p. 56).
Event: including festivals, meetings, conferences, exhibitions, incentives, sports, and other range of other events (Julia Tum, 2006, p. 56)
Event management: is a way of outsourcing occasions that are either business, social or a combination of the two. Events can be as diverse as weddings to political rallies. For any business meeting or social occasion you can think up, an event management team can be called in to organize it (Julia Tum, 2006, p. 56).
MICE: Meeting, Incentive tour, Convention, and Exhibition (Somethea, Chanrith, & Vanvireak, 2008, p. 70).
Meeting is a gathering of two or more people that has been convened for the purpose of achieving a common goal through verbal interaction, such as sharing information or reaching agreement. Meetings may occur face to face or virtually, as mediated by communications technology, such as a telephone conference call, a skipped conference call or a video conference .
Meeting is a conference, Workshop, seminar, or other event that designed to bring people together for the purpose of exchanging information. Meetings do not include exhibition (Cruz, 2006, p. 1).
Seminar: is a group meeting conducted by experts of particular field in purpose of finding solutions for issues in the topic discussed (Somethea, Chanrith, & Vanvireak, 2008, p. 56).
Suite room: refers to a set of two rooms out of which one is a bedroom and the other is a sitting room or living room.
Executive suite: This type of suite has two rooms on two successive floors and is connected to each other with a common staircase. Generally the sitting room or living room is situated on a lower floor while the bedroom is on the next floor. This is one of the costliest accommodations of the hotel.
Pax: Travel industry slang for “Passenger(s)” or number of person.
Destination: the place designated as the end (as of a race or journey); “a crowd assembled at the finish”; “he was nearly exhausted as their destination came into view”

Standard Room: Hotel industry term for a lower priced and lesser quality accommodation.

President Suit: Presidential suite and royal suite are common names for the most expensive suite in a luxury hotel
Venue: the scene of any event or action (especially the place of a meeting)
Auditorium: An auditorium is a room built to enable an audience to hear and watch performances at venues such as theatres. For movie theaters, the number of auditoriums is expressed as the number of screens.
BEO: A Banquet Event Order is a document, usually created by an Event Coordinator/F&B Manager. It contains the most of the following information; Date of Event Contact Information Billing Information Type of Event Guest Count Room or Location Timeline of Guest arrivals, ceremonies, presentations, appetizers, cocktails, meals, desserts, toasts, coffee service..Etc.
Housekeeping: is the systematic process of making a hotel neat and clean in approximately that order.
Gala Dinner: A private room reserved for a group to pre order off a set menu and seated in banquet or cabaret style sometimes with dance floor and room for a stage, entertainments etc
Ball Room: A ballroom is a large room inside a building, the designated purpose of which is holding formal MICE and event arrangement. Traditionally, most balls were held in private residences; many mansions contain one or more ballrooms. …
Front office: is the nerve center of a hotel. Members of the front-office staff welcome the guests, carry their luggage, and help them register, give them their room keys and mail, answer questions about the activities in the hotel and surrounding area, and finally check them out. In fact, the only direct contact most guests have with hotel employees, other than in the restaurants, is with members of the front-office staff.
BFF: Banquet Event Order is the survey for that NAGA World Hotel uses to get comment and feedback from the customer.

CHAPTER III
LITERATURE REVIEW
Applied Linguistics yearIV assignment

3.1 History of event industry
The original form of Convention/Event is gathering people together for meeting in particular place make discussion over communal interest such as hunting plan, war time activities, negotiation for peace or organization tribal celebration. It is the archeologists’ investigation of ancient cultures (Cruz, 2006, p. 3). Each village or hamlet had it common gathering place. As geographical area grew, cities became the meeting places for people who wanted to trade goods or discussion common problem. When cities became the center of activities for geographical regions, transportation started to improve. Then the desire of people to gather to discuss things of common interest spread out very fast. Many trade, professional, fraternal, and religious association had their historical roots in Europe. In ancient Rome, for example, numerous buildings were especially for holding debates and meetings. Also many terms used in convention industry today are based on Latin terms, for instance, “conference” stems from medieval conferentia (“to bring together”), and “auditorium” originated from auditorius (“place to hear”). In the United States, such activities took place in the mid 1800’s.
The events and convention industry have been growing globally since 1960s. Asia has been impressed through world when Philippine, Manila pioneered international meeting industry in Southeast Asia in 1976 (Cruz, 2006, p. 4). It was the memorable year for the region and it also the year opened the door to Asia’s full fledge convention center- the Philippine Convention Center (PICC). Similarly, other countries in Asia also have a big growth in the same industry, like Hong Kong and Singapore.
Because the increasing of demand have improved a lot about the buildings, technologies, infrastructures, accommodation, transportation network, modern telecommunication, and professional event planners to support the meetings and events. Not only developing all tools around the industry to support it, but also related skills required improved very much in some countries. Bachelor degree and master degree are offered to generate professional event and convention organizers. Many text books and journal articles are being researched and written as theories and literature.
3.2 Kind of event
In order to consider in more manageable grouping, the diversity of event industry, it sectors and it market, Shone and Parry create typologies of event which shown in this chart.

Figure 3.1 Shone and Parry Typology of Event (Shone and Parry, 2004, p. 10)

For Get’ Z (1997) was stated clearly and more detail the typology of event in the
following:
– Cultural celebration
o festival
o carnivals
o religious event
o parades
o heritage
o commemoration
– Art/entertainment
o concert
o other performance
o exhibits
o award ceremony
– Business/trade
o fairs, market, sales
o consumer and trade shows
o exposition
o meeting and conference
o publicity events
o fundraiser events
– Sport competition
o professional
o amateurs
– Educational and scientific
o seminar
o workshops
o congresses
o interpretive events
– Recreational
o game and sports
o amusement events
– Politic/ state
o inaugurations
o investiture
o VIP visits
o rallies
– Private event or personal celebrations
o anniversaries
o family holidays
o rite of passage
– Social event
o parties
o reunions
Another way the event industry or MICE industry could be split into three sections include:
– Public
– Private
– Voluntary
Event have similarities, we can judge them similar based on the basic principle of event organization can be applied to all events. Events have universal needs such as funding, facility, transport, marketing and staffing (Tum, Norton, & Wright, 2006. p. 11).
Event have own characteristic that makes one event different from each other. These because of the reasons following:
1. geographical factors
2. size population
3. age of population
4. number of voluntary organization
5. affluence of the community
6. ability of organizers
7. nature of site
8. facilities and equipment available
All events are unique, and it is this uniqueness that makes them special and creates the challenge for the manager. There are four characteristic of event that is important to the event organizer or facility provider. First, it is the size and volume of output. Second, complexity and variety of service offer to the consumer or customer. Then the uncertainty of number attending, cost, time schedule and technical requirements, and last is the transaction with consumer, degree of consumer, and customer contact (Cruz, 2006, p. 64)
3.3 Impact of event
All events were created; it always provides a benefit which is the demand of sponsor, event organizer, facility provider, and also for the hold social. In contrast, it is not only providing a benefit, but also impact to the social. These are the positive and negative impact of event:
+ Positive impact
– For social and cultural
o shared experience
o revitalizing traditions
o building community
o anticipation
o Introducing new and challenging ideas
o and expanding cultural perspectives.
– For physical and environment analysis
o it provides models for the best practice
o increasing environmental awareness
o infrastructure legacy
o improve transport and communications,
o urban transformation and renewal
– political
o international prestige
o improve profile
o promotion of investment
o social cohesion
o development of administrative skills
– For tourism and economic
o Declinational promotion and increased tourist visits
o Extended length of stay
o Higher yield
o Increased tax revenue
o Job creation
+ Negative impact
– Social and cultural
o community alienation
o manipulation of community
o negative community image
o bad behavior
o substance abuse
o social dislocation
o loss of amenity
– Physical and environment
o environment damage
o pollution
o destruction of heritage
o noise disturbance
o traffic congestion
– Political
o risk of event failure
o misallocation of heritage
o lack of accountability
o propagandizing
o loss of community ownership and control
o legitimating of ideology
– Tourism and economic
o community resistance to tourism
o loss of authenticity
o damage to reputation
o exploitation
o inflated price
o opportunity costs (Toole, Mcdonnell, & Harris, 2002, p. 26)
3.4 Review the theories
Tum and Wright 2005, divided Operational Management Process in event and convention management into four sections including: Analysis, Detail planning, Implementation and delivery, and Performance evaluation. In the Analysis stage will describe external and internal environment within the organization specifically on event and convention services. Next stage will describe about planning process which list and explain how to plan events effectively. The third stage is the implementation and delivery that will concern with allocating resources against specification designed for an event. And the last section is performance evaluation stage, it looks in detail at how the standard specification can be used in order to monitor and correct any stage of the operation both during after the event (Tum, Norton, Wright, 2006, p. 7).

Figure 3.2 Environmental operation management model, shown as an iterative process (Tum, Norton, Wright, 2006, p. 7)
3.4.1 Environmental Analysis
3.4.1.1 External Environmental Analysis
We should aware that organization does not operate in isolation. There are many stakeholders around in the external environment should be analyzed. All organization should work in partnership with their suppliers, customers and competitors. Without customers the organization will cease to exist. However, without suppliers the organization will not have sufficient resources, and without transforming those resources into services an event will not exist to be consumed (Tum, Norton, & Wright, 2006, p. 29). Organization will not achieve sustainable profit without the customer being satisfied. It is important that customer satisfaction provided has to be affordable and sustainable. This will entail having a efficient and reliable supply chain, example, supplier who provide the right resource, the right time, to the right place, at the right cost in the right quality. The other factors that can influence the organization such as:

• Political and legal: laws and regulation might be seen as limitation; however, they serve to protect the organization.
• Economics: exchange rate, interest rate, population growth and demographics, student population, the average wage, unemployment and other statistic relevant to the event industry are all area of vital information when considering business policy.
• Sociological: event organizations should be aware of demographic changes as the population changes in term of age distribution, ethnic origins, affluence, numbers of people employed and leisure trends.
• Technology: customers will often be beguiled by technological promises and computer wizardry in virtual conferencing or laser light shows. The use of technology may be one way to secure competitive advantage.
• Competition: is often a major threat and worldwide nowadays. In determination of service and level of quality to be offered, organization has to meet the service provided by competition.
• Stakeholder: are group of people or individuals who have an influence on or influenced by, the activities of organizations. However, there are some internal stakeholders like employees and managers. Shareholders form a group of stakeholder. In economic theory, it is believed should be given the first priority (Tum, Norton, & Wright, 2006, p. 37).
3.4.1.2 Internal Environment Analysis
There are some important elements of internal environment such as corporate culture, desire of quality, information system, and finance and ownership (Tum, Norton, & Wright, 2006, p. 72).
• Corporate Culture: is the collection of beliefs, expectation, and values learned shared by organization’s members and transmitted from one generation of employees to another. The corporate culture generally reflects the value of founder and the mission of the firm (Wheelen & Hunger, 2006). If the event organization has a strong culture, then each individual will instinctively know how thing are done and what is expected (Tum, Norton, & Wright, 2006, p. 73)
• Desire for quality: it is important to analyze the quality service offering to customers because customer is very sensitive to judge. The quality offered is very much a business policy decision. Certainly doing things right the first time and every time should cost us nothing apart from training our people to know what is right and what corrective actions that they can take.
• Information system: in the modern information technology, every members of event organization kept up date with and have a clear understanding of what the current policy of the organization. Today, employees know where they do because they understand the policies of the organization, believe in products and services they are offering, and enjoy being involved, even in a small way in helping to shape policy.
• Finance and ownership: Money always limits the majority of event organization, and the necessary funding comes from owner, profit (equity or shareholders’ funds), sponsors and borrowing.
3.5 Event Planning
After the analyzing stage which includes the internal environment, external environment, and another criteria related to event, the next step to building event structure successfully is planning. Planning is the core stage to guide event planner to know what they do in order to inspire the well performance of event practice. By the way to obtain the best result of the event planning, we should follow the planning process depend on the side and type of event. Many authors set different process of event planning but seem to strengthen in one way.

3.5.1 Establish goal and objective
First, we should establish the goal and objectives, convention and exhibition should establish by the sponsor. One of the first responsibilities of meeting planner is to meet with the sponsor of the event in order to know the reason for holding the meeting. Event manager should understand whether the sponsor of the meeting or convention is interested in providing an educational experience for attendees, entertaining the attendees, boosting the morale of the attendees, solving problem or a combination of these objectives (Cruz, 2006, p. 49). Or we can say this stage will be built on the vision, and can be presented as a mission statement (Tum, Norton, & Wright, 2006, p.93). It is very important those objectives are set, agreed and understanding by everyone. In order to get effective goal and objective, they both should be
– Specific
– Measurable,
– Achievable
– Realistic
– Time around the event schedule (Cruz, 2006, p. 66)

Then we should target the population, after determining the goal and objective, thing involves in the planning stage of the meeting, convention and exhibition must determine who should attend. In the case of exhibitions, the development of the exhibitor list as well as the target audience must be considered. The sponsoring organization must attract exhibitor to their exhibition. To do this, the sponsor should convince the exhibitors that the sponsor will provide an excellent marketing opportunity for them. The sponsoring organization should provide the exhibitor to determine whether or not attendees are their targeted the meeting and exhibitions.

3.5.2 Design Program
After that we design the program by combining major topics and professional and personal growth and networking opportunities for participants. In designing program should include the theme and agenda of the convention, meeting, and exhibition. In design the theme for the meeting, planner should ensure that the theme should take into consideration the need of the audience, the objective of the event and should provide continuity.
3.5.3 Budget Planning
The next step is budget planning which we estimate the income and expenses and a plan to adjust the anticipated expenses to the expected income .Overall budget figures are usually provided by sponsoring organization but specific guidelines are normally obtained from previous conference, meeting or exhibitions budget. Budget includes fix expense, variable expense and source of revenue. Fix expenses are not dependent on the number of attendees. Variable expenses are those that fluctuate depending on the number of attendees. After determining the expense, source of revenue to support the activities must be developed. Registration fee to support the activities must be developed. Registration fee are the most constant source of income for conference. Other sources of revenue are:
– Advertising,
– Sale of cassette tapes
– Educational material from the event
– Sponsoring organization or company (Cruz, 2006, p. 50)
It would be impossible to host a meeting, convention and exhibition without these sources.

3.5.4 Site selection
The importance one after the budget planning is site selection. The site selection process is a very important part of the activity of the sponsoring organization. The two most important factors in site selection are convenience and cost. In the site selecting process, the planner considers the goal and objective that have been established for the meeting, convention and exhibition. Based on this goal and objective, meeting plan or format is developed. The next step is to develop a group prospectus that will enable the meeting planner or exhibition manager to determine the physical requirement for the meeting planner or exhibition manager to determine the physical requirement for the meeting, convention and meeting. A prospectus is a formal document that outlines in detail the history of the sponsoring group and attendees as well as a proposal of the specific requirement for the meeting or convention. All site requirements are included such as:
– Preferred date
– Number and type of guest room
– Number, size and usage of meeting rooms
– Estimated time required range of acceptable rates, date and food and beverage event or activities.
– And other related information.
This prospectus is sent to convention and visitor bureau of the city being considered. The Convention and Visitor Bureau will then pass the prospectus to all members’ properties. The properties that meet the physical requirement of the meeting, convention and exhibition will submit a proposal of what their properties have offer to convention and visitor bureau. The bureau will organize the material and send a complete packet to the meeting planner or exhibition manager to enable them to review all possible sites. The convention and visitor bureau will also organize familiarization trips to allow the planner to visit the possible sites and do on-site inspections. If there is no convention and visitor bureau in the host city, the meeting planner must request proposals from individual properties.
One more issue, during the site inspection, the meeting planner should bring a checklist that includes the following areas;
– Accommodation
– Convention and exhibition space
– Transportation,
– Food and beverage
– Recreation and service.
In retrieving the sleeping room, a meeting planner should consider:
– The number of available rooms.
– Type of rooms provided
– Quality of furnishings
– Security of the room and corridors
-Accessibility for handicapped persons
– Quality of the lighting for reading
– And adequacy of work surfaces.
In case the meeting rooms, the point to be reviewed are the following:
-The number of sit
– Shape and size of rooms
– Quality of furnishing, lighting
– Accessibility of the audio-visual equipment
– And suitability for exhibits.
In reviewing exhibition space, the following point should be considered during the inspection:
– Square foot
– Age of exhibit space
– Accessibility
– Limitation place on move-in and move- out activities, utilities, policy
regarding storage
– And exclusivity of subcontractors. (Cruz, 2006, p. 55)
The event manager should also consider the attendees with special needs such as the older attendees, those travelling with small children and handicapped attendees. The person that involve with the site selection should also pay close attention to the service attitude of those who will be inter- acting with attendees. Another area that must be reviewed during the site selection process is the ability of the host city and properties to provide service and facility
for leisure time activities (Allen, 2000, p. 3).

3.5.5 Negotiation and Contract
For the negotiation and contract is come after site selection. Negotiations are usually under take between the representative of the host property and the sponsoring organization. Negotiable areas include:
– Sleeping rooms
– Function space
– Safety
– Security
– Accessibility
– Food and beverages
– Renovation and construction
– Contingencies
– Restrictions cancellations (Cruz, 2006, p. 53)
One the negotiation has been conducted; a contract is written and signed. A contract is a legal document which defines the responsibilities of all the practice concerned. All contracts and formal negotiations must be follow the law and regulation. There are many reasons that event preparation must follow the rule and regulation. In sum up, there have 4 primary reasons, there are:
1. To protect one’s legal interest
2. To abide by ethical practices
3. To ensure the safety and security of the event stake-holders
4. To protect one’s financial investment

3.5.6 Formulate committees
Moreover, in planning process, we should formulating committees. The formulation of committees is necessary in the sponsorship of the meeting, convention, and exhibition. Each committee should have its own specific goal and objectives (Cruz, 2006, p. 54).

3.5.7 Marketing and Promotion
Then we also consider about marketing and promotion which include:
– determine of the break- even attendance figure,
– develop marketing plan,
– develop timetable
– implement the program
– evaluate the program
Marketing procedures should begin by determining the break- even attendance figures. The break event attendance figure is the minimum number of paying very least, the minimum number of attendees must create enough revenue to cover the expenses. In determining this number, the sponsors must have clear idea of their budget. A marketing plan must designed one the break- even figures are determined. A marketing plan is written blueprint of an organization’ marketing activities regarding a particular meeting, convention and exhibition. It contains the goal and objective of the marketing and promotion of the conference, target market and marketing strategies to be used. A timetable must be developed after a marketing plan has been established (Cruz, 2006, p. 54)

3.5.8 Food and Beverage
One more important factor that we cannot look over is food and beverage functions. Food and beverage function must jibe with the program design and budget for the meeting, convention and exhibition. The sponsor has the responsibility to:
1. Determine the number of food and beverage function needed for the conference.
2. Determine the type of food and beverage functions needed for the conference.
3. Determine the cuisine.
4. Guarantee attendance figures.
5. Develop a system for recording keeping.
In determining the number of food and beverage functions which are included in a meeting, convention and exhibition, the sponsor should look and scan overall budget. After determining the number of food and beverage functions, the type of function should be established. The following are the various ways of providing food and drink to the attendees: (Cruz, 2006, p. 55)
1. Breakfast 6. Hospitality suites
2. Lunch 7. Theme parties
3. Dinner 8. Late night suppers
4. Refreshment breaks 9. Recreational activities.
5. Receptions
In choosing the cuisine for a meeting or convention, the meeting planner should know the desires of the attendees. Although there is a trend toward lighter menu choices, there are stiff some attendees who prefer heavier food. Therefore, the planner must know his or her group and choose menus accordingly. One the meeting planner has determined the number, type and cuisine for the food and beverage functions, attendance figure must be established. Since food and beverage functions are very expensive, the sponsoring organization and the meeting planner must give special attention to the number of guarantees. The area to be considered in food and beverage is record keeping. There are many ways of ascertaining the number of people served at the food and beverage functions. The most common methods are head count, ticket count, plate count and food consumed. Food and beverage play a vital role in the overall success of the meeting, convention and exhibition. Hence, It is necessary that meeting planner work closely with the food and beverage department of the host facility to ensure that plans are accurately made and that executive of these plans are efficiently done (Tum, Norton, & Wright, 2006, p. 130).

3.5.9 Event Risk Management
Furthermore, risk management is also considered. A risk is something that might happen in the future that will result in an adverse effect. Risk management is the art of being aware of all thing that could go wrong and having plans and contingencies to prevent this, not to remedy the situation as best as possible if thing do go wrong. Base on Harrrison and McDonal (2004) stated that the process of risk management involve identifying the risk, specifying their nature, assessing the degree to which risk could impact upon the event, and developing contingency plan designed to avoid or minimize the potential impacts. or we can say that risk management is ongoing, integrated and interactive process. (Tum, Norton, & Wright, 2006, p. 149).

Different authors and text site a range of different risks, and these can change depending upon the event that is being planned and it complexity. We have adapted which cites in seven difference categories (Parry, Shone, 2004). The seven categories are:
1. Risk to staff and others, due to confused organization and poor health and safety practice.
2. Risk arising from overenthusiastic marketing of an event, raising expectations that will not be met.
3. Risk in health and safety, particularly with outside complex events which may include an inherently risky activity.
4. Risk in catering provision
5. Risk with crowded management, depending on density and profile mix, crush points and emergency exits.
6. Risk in security where large numbers, VIP and media coverage present terrorist opportunities.
7. Risk in transport of resource to the site.
Most modern event has a potential for negligent activity that can lead to long costly litigation. The concern for risk management and other legal and ethical issues has increased due to the increase in the number of professionally managed event. Because of the lack of training in risk management, there was a corresponding interest by legal profession in bringing litigation against negligent event manager. Professional event manager are now became smarter with regard to legal, ethical and risk management issues. Whenever human being assembles for purposes of celebration, education, marketing, there is an increased risk of loss of life or property. This has proven many times as newspaper headline have reported accidents that have occurred at event. Increase expense is the effect of injuries, thefts and others misfortunes. Increase expense may come from two sources namely: the loss of revenue resulting directly from the occurrence and increased insurance premiums when underwriters are force to pay large settlements due to negligence. The most intense loss is the loss of business opportunity that results from the bad publicity from such tragedies. Risk management experts have devised a method for identifying and managing the managing risks associated with event. As the risk of event has occurred, we have 4 strategies to reduce the risk depend on the level and type of risk in event, those four strategies to reduce include:
1. Avoid the risk- every situation should be evaluated for possible risk. This risk should be identified and avoided.
2. Transfer the risk – for risk that can be avoided and for which the event manager should not be held liable, the event manager should review and check whether they are the responsibility of someone else as in the case of a delegate slipping on a wet floor in the rest room. Suppliers in event are required to share in liability for the event.
3. Devise backups and alternative plans should be ready to be put into place.
4. Distribute the risk – obtaining various source of revenue for an event including many sponsor can reduce the risk of failure to generate the needed revenue.
As resource are allocated and plans set, by the way event manager must be able to be responsive to need for change. To make plan successfully, we should concentrate on the following:
1. Anticipating what can go wrong
2. Risk Identification
3. Calculate the probability that the risk will occur
4. Estimating the impact if the risk does occur
5. Determining in advance what can be done to avoid thing going wrong, so as to prevent the risk happening, or planning actions that can be taken to correct or ease the situation if the risk does happen.
6. Communicating the risk and actions that can and should be taken if necessary.
For professional standard in risk management we must consider many factors and many processes. To summary all above, add more strategy, and clear understanding about risk management please see the chart below:
Event Risk Management Flow Chart

Figure 3.3 Event Risk Management Flow Chart
In the site of event risk management has grown very fast for all global event. In case, it leads to increase the demand of event experts in event market. For the most event, the event manager is the risk manager means that event manager play the role as the event manager.

3.5.10 Product Development
Furthermore, event manager should pay attention on product development. Because the changes in society, markets, economies, it led to a shortening of the product life cycle, and it has intensified the need for organizations to innovate in terms of the products they offer. Similarly, increasing competition has made innovation a necessity, and event manager must always be aware that they are not able to sit still, believing that they are on the right track and therefore immune from competition and change. In today’s fast-moving market, event managers have to be able to react quickly to marketplace changes. Time is at premium in gaining the initiative over the competition with a new service, or in catching up and reacting to a new service offered by competitor. Customers are fickle, and one lost are hard to regain. Therefore, being a best event manager should consider the best to develop their product in order to obtain many customers. One of the most important tools for product development is innovation. Innovation is very importance to survive the product life cycle. The innovation of product has many criteria depend on type of company, type of event, market demand, and competitors challenging. In this concept, want to convince the event manager design product well in product planning process. Event manager can innovate their product by many ways us technology advancement, reduce sale price, increase quality of product and etc… In case idea for new products or services, and concepts or new ways of delivering an event, can come from a variety of external and internal external source.
For Internal sourcev
Staff – employee who work in organization can be rich in ideas regarding what is possible in the future. Similarly, those who are contact with customer that provide a lot of information, both informally in conversations and formal in focus groups.
Research and development – Research is the function that might be formally set up within the event organization. Research is the kind of discovering and developing new knowledge in order to solve the problem. Development is the mean of putting that new knowledge into practice.
For External sourcev
Customer – Marketing is responsible for keeping an ear to the ground in order to identify new opportunities and possible services that would be appropriate. However, even managers should not just rely on this source. There are many ways to gather intelligence, some formal and the rest is informal. This massage means that all event managers should listen to ideas, hold focus group, use systematic analysis and discussion, and look carefully at both complaints and suggestions. All of this, they should understanding of what the competition is doing, or successes other organizations have had in related areas and sometimes is not closely related area.
Supplier – in preparing the event, there have many suppliers and partnerships with other specialists. They may have come across different situations and different remedies, and often their ideas will be helpful to both event manager, supplier, and eventually, to your customer.
Competitor – event manager may have a choice during the competitors have similar idea or similar situation. Event manager aiming to take the lead and be innovative, and may be able to learn from competitor’s mistake or achievements (Tum, Norton, & Wright, 2006, p. 107). It has one sentence which clearly stated that; ideas are not the same as concepts. Idea get transformed into comcepts so that they can be evaluated and put in to operation which operated by the organization ( Slack, 2004, p. 37).

Internal source External source

Figure 3.4 Influence on the design of event (Tum, Norton, Wright, 2006, p. 108)
For the logic situation through many experiments in the market, they can develop a matrix which highlights the choices manager can make when designing new products and services. There are four broad alternatives:
1. Market penetration – The way to increasing market share in existing markets utilizing the same existing products
2. Market development – entering new markets but still using the same existing product.
3. Product development – developing new product to serve existing market.
4. Diversification – developing new products to serve new market (Tum, Norton, & Wright, 2006, p. 106).

3.5.11 Supply chain Management
The process of supplier chain management will usually related to dealing direct with purchasing and supply and inventory management. The consideration about this, it allows the event manager to see how well received the products, supplier, a whether there should be any changes in the future. Supplier chain management is concern with managing the flow of material and information. In the event, there have many and different supply chain which provide the varied resource flow. All of these resources have to be managed and coordinated into one event. Event managers are responsible for providing event purchasing as the conditions in the following (Tum, Norton, & Wright, 2006, p. 117):
– Purchasing at the right price
– Purchasing for delivery at the right time
– Purchasing of goods and services to the right quality
– Purchasing in the right quantity
– Purchasing the right resource

Figure 3.5 The supply chain, showing resource moving forward and feedback flowing Backwards (Tum, Norton, Wright, 2006, p. 117)
The planning process of the event has followed many factors which event manager must be considered deeply and suitable time in order to get the high quality of event preparation. Through the description as above, we can shape that process into the following chart.

Figure 3.6 Event Planning Process

In order to make clear understanding in planning process of event arrangement, please see the detail of chart below which described about the detail of planning process:

Figure 3.7 Detail Event Planning Process (Cruz, 2006, p. 65)

3.6 Implementation
On the other hand, to get successful event management, we not only pay attention on planning only, but also implementation is very important. So, the implement stage is the consideration. The most important of this stage is people power that is the most valuable resource to run event smoothly.
In the event industry, the level of service provided to customers and efficiency of the organization due to the human resource (employee) and consistent performance. Being a good manager has to manage this diamond and expensive resource carefully as possible. However, the different between managing non- human resource and managing human resource it that action taken with inventory, equipment and machines will lead to predictable results, where people are not predictable. Sometimes in a given set of circumstances people will react one way, and sometimes in similar circumstances, for no apparent reason, they will react differently (Tom, Write, Norton, 2006, p. 165). Therefore, human resource site is a core tool to run event implementation smoothly. In order to inspire the well process of human resource in event site we must develop the human resource strategy. Those strategies include; establishing guiding strategies and objective, determined staff need, undertaking a job analysis and producing job descriptions and specification. For detail of each strategy, please see the following:

3.6.1 Establish strategies and objective
To support the human resource management strategy and objective, we should consider about these linkages:
– Cost containment – improve staff productivity, reduced absenteeism, decreases staff members.
– Improve quality – better recruitment and selection, expanded employee and volunteer numbers and improve financial rewards and volunteer benefit.
– Improve organizational effectiveness – better job design, change to organizational structure, and improve relations with employee and volunteers.
– Enhance performance regarding social and legal responsibility – improved compliance with relevant legislation such that related to occupation health and safety, antidiscrimination and equal employment opportunity (Allen, 2001, p. 126).

3.6.2 Determine Staff needs
The main strategic decision area for event managers regarding human resource is that of staffing, as without a staff there is nothing not really to strategies. Event managers need to make decisions how many staff/volunteers are needed to deliver the event. What are the combinations of skill/ qualification/ experience is required and when these staff/volunteers will be needed. The main strategies decision for staffing involves three processes:
1. Identify with all task associated with event creation, delivery, and shutdown.
2. Determine how many people are needed to complete the range of tasks associated with the conduct of event.
3. Make a list of the numbers of staff/ volunteers, supervisors and the skill/ experience/qualification needed to form the ideal work force for the event.(Getz, 1997)
3.6.3 Job analysis
Job analysis is an important aspect of this stage of the human resource planning process. It involve identify job in terms of specific task and responsibilities and identifying the ability, skills, and qualifications needed to perform it successfully. To complete this process, we should answer these questions (Stone, 1998):
– What task should be grouped together to create job or position?
– What should be looked for in individual applying for identified job?
– What should an organizational structure look like and what interrelationship should exist between jobs?
– What tasks should form the basis of the performance appraisal for an individual in a specific job?
– What training and development programs are required to ensure staff/ volunteers posses the needed skills / knowledge?
3.6.4 Job description
Job descriptions are another outcome of the job analysis process with which event managers need some measures of familiarity if there are to effectively match people (both employees and volunteer) to jobs. A job description is a statement identifying why a job has come into existence, what the holder of the job will do, and under what conditions the
job is to conducted.
Job descriptions commonly include the following information:
– Job title and commitment required – locate the paid or voluntary position within the organization, indicate functional area where the job is to be based and states the job duration/time commitment.
– Salary/ reward/ incentives associated with position. For paid positions a salary, wage, or hourly rate will need to be stated, along with another such as bonuses. it should be considered to identifying benefit for volunteer position such us free merchandise, free/discount meal, free tickets and end of event parties, all of which can serve to increase interest in working at an event.
– Job summary – a brief statement describing the primary purpose of the job.
– Duties and responsibilities – a list major task and responsibilities associated with the job. It is benefit to express these in terms of the most important outcome of the work.
– Relationship with other positions within and outside the event organization.
– Skill, Knowledge, experience, qualification, personal attribute require by the position. In some case, particular with the basic jobs, most deficiencies in these areas may be overcome quickly with training. However, for the most complex job and difficult job, individual must possess experience, skill knowledge before applying. Often a distinction is drawn between these elements, with some seen as essential while others are noted as desirable. Specific qualification may also be required.
– Performance standards associated with the position. Criteria will be required by which performance in the position will be assessed. While these apply more to paid staff than to voluntary positions, they should still be considered for the latter.

3.6.5 Job specification
A job specification is derived from the job description and seeks to identify the experience, qualifications, skills, abilities, knowledge and personal characteristics needed to perform a given job (Festival).
To make these strategies above more efficiency, it is priority to focus mainly on motivation the staff. The ability to motivate other staff members, it is a fundamental component of the event manager’ skills. The employees and volunteer can inspire organization not achieve the goal and deliver low level customer service cause without motivation. Without motivation, they may also show a lack of concern for their co- workers and customer. Getting the best out of people will be achieved by combination of:
– Making sure that people of the organization have all the necessary materials and equipment to do the job.
– Making sure that staff know what to do and how to do it
– Encourage self motivation and development
If employee lack the ability we can train that person, if other resource are a problem we can supply them as necessary; However, if motivation is missing then the task for the event manager is much more challenging (Tum, Wright, Norton, 2006, p.166).

In purpose to get the best human resource, organization should focus on the motivation and encouragement employee and understanding about organization culture. The next step is forecasting and capacity management which recognize the important of establishing the demand for the event, how to use and evaluate the different method available to an event manager for forecasting. Last but not lease, we should concentrate on scheduling and time management which involve the different technique to our own use of personal time (Tum, Norton, & Wright, 2006). In implement stage, it requires based on the trying best, flexible or situational, and catch up the opportunity that are the reason to make event management became stronger and stronger.

3.7 Evaluation Stage
Finally, in order to measure the effective of planning and implement stage and to ascertain whether the goal that was established during the conceptualization phase was realize. We have several ways of evaluated the event. A good evaluation process should use all possible methods. The evaluation is also vital and should be carried out on every occasion. The degree of formality may very between situations- ranging from a few questionnaires to a professionally prepared market research. To evaluate the event, there has two kinds of criteria are hard criteria and the soft criteria. Hard criteria are the outputs. They are intangible and quantitative. Hard criteria are: deadlines, performance specifications, specific quality standards, cost requirements and resource constraints. Soft criteria are: a cooperative attitude, a positive image, staff commitment, total quality and ethical conduct.
The small meeting can be evaluated through informal method, or after the meeting the sponsor or planner may telephone some attendees and ask about their impression of the event. For the formal method, we can use questionnaire or survey are other way of evaluating the convention and meeting (Cruz, 2006, p. 57 ). Furthermore, good evaluation is not base on the customers’ point of view; the evaluation should use all sources of information available to it. There may be activities within the event that went well and could be strengthened further, and there may be those that need improving upon, if they went badly. In all cases, the evaluation should be provided speedily. As the event evaluator, you should determine what is to be evaluated and why and how. Research and evaluation will give the information require to devise effective practices and control, which could lead to good results. Please see the following:

Figure 3.8 Silver Research Evaluation Continuum Model (Tum, Norton, Wright, 2006, p. 135)

Here are the sources of information for evaluation:
– Event attendees’ comments derived from questionnaires and other observations
– Security and police views on crowds, traffic and other incidents
– Specialist comments and community views.
– Council comments and community views
– Any mystery guests and other participants
– Staff comments, including volunteers
– Sponsors’ views
– Financial statistics and reports.( management of event operation)
By the way, to get effective source of information, we should strong focus on instrument, strategy for research and participants who are the sample of our evaluation mean we should be utilized to conduct an effective focus group in order to avoid from valid information:
1. Qualify 9 to 12 persons who have one or two homogenous characteristics. For example, they may be both men and women but all have a college degree. Or they may all be midlevel managers or between the ages of 35 and 50.
2. Use a survey instrument or interviews to qualified participation.
3. Distribute a confirmation letter to the qualified participants listing the date, time, location and topics for the focus panel.
4. Offer a reward or gift for their participation, such as a book.
5. Make certain that you recruit 15 to 25 percent more participants than you will actually need to allow for attrition.
6. Appoint a trained focus-group facilitator. A good facilitator will be skilled at remaining neutral during the focus group session and probing to elicit the most valid responses from the participants.
7. Call the participants the day before the focus-group session to remind them and reconfirm their participation.
8. At the beginning of the focus panel you should announce the agenda and format. Encourage the participants to express themselves fully even if they wish to speak to one another.
9. Record the focus panel using an audio recorder or video recorder.
10. Transcribe the recording and notes from the focus panel.
11. Analyze the focus panel transcription and note areas of agreement as well as areas of dissonance among the participants.
12. Submit your final report, including your recommendations based on the focus group comments ( Cruz, 2006, p. 168)
However, key information interview has played important role to the evaluation process. We can’t look over the question for interview. The following steps will assist you in targeting key information to provide high-quality information about your event.
1. Identify those persons with the highest level of expertise.
2. Request an interview that will last no more than 15 minutes.
3. Prepare up to 10 questions to ask the key information.
4. Use a quantitative approach for some of the questions, such as “How would you rate the potential location for this event on a 1 to 5 scale, 1 being unacceptable and 5 very acceptable?”
5. Use open-ended questions such as “How would you describe the overall quality of the event?”
6. Probe to extract more information for the key information using questions such as “Tell me more about this” or “Why do you feel this way?”
7. Reduce your field notes from the interview questions to a short written report using initials for the questions.
8. Summarize and analyze the report, listing the key points that were identified by the key information and how you will use these recommendations to resolve the issues associated with the event or improve over all performance ( Cruz, 2006, p. 169)
Base on the description above, we see that evaluation process is so complicate and hard to do; however, it provides a broad benefit to MICE or event firm. Therefore, there are four element benefit of evaluation or control:
1. Setting standard specification
2. Feedback of actual performance
3. Measurement of performance against the specification
4. Correction of deviation from the specification (Tum, Wright, Norton, 2006, p.254)
To sum up, after we get the negative feedback or we can say the problem and issue, we should also be identified and, if the event is to be repeated, suggestion made as to how these might be addressed in the future. This information should then be incorporated into the planning process for the next event (Toole, Mcdonnell, & Harris, 2002).
In brief, in order to get successful event done, event planner had better follow these four stages of event operation carefully. It includes environmental analysis, planning stage, implementation stage, and evaluation stage. The first stage covers everything surrounding and in the event organization which are influenced events. The second and the third stage focus on all elements in series which closely related to each other in forming the one event. They are all required careful analysis. The last stage is the mirror to reflect how effective of event that already conducted to appreciate the strength and success point, to find out the weak point that should be improve for the next event. High quality events have to be conducted professionally with high experienced event planner. That is why event manager in the twenty first century should be well equipped to compete to get world class standard of events.
The statement above shows us event operation process that is followed through the theories, but it is not easy at in the situation. However, still many countries are interested in this field. Cambodia is the country that has potential tourism attraction both cultural and natural now is being attracted by the event industry. Unfortunately, the improvement of technology and professional event preparation is still limited in Cambodia. Few convention venues are in action, and some private event and convention centers are being served busily. This is may be because of low awareness of the important of event industry that lead to few investments, poor technology supported, lacking of human resource specific in this field. Therefore; it really encourage us to choose this research topic specific in NAGA World Hotel which is the best five stars hotel in Cambodia that provide both event and convention venue and event organizer services. In the research we will explore how NAGA World Hotel applies the complicate theories of event operation process into the actual situation, and to see whether it matches between the theories and the real practices the get international event standard.

CHAPTERIV
RESEARCH PROCEDURE

4.1 Research Methodology
Our research focus much on qualitative method to collect and describe the information, it is also used for support the evaluation and explanation. In order to meet our 3 objectives which is mentioned earlier we have to make questionnaires that suit to all concerned different departments. We used our own questionnaire for interviews with all the 6 departments to collect information that respond to the 1st and 2nd objective. For the 3rd objective we are allowed to raw data of customer feedbacks and make our own analyzing. Because banquet department has its own series of questionnaires to collect the customer feedbacks, so they always used those feedbacks to measure customer’s satisfaction and do the service improvement. After collected all the needed information, we started to make a description base on the answer from the questionnaires. Moreover, we analyzed the data from customer feedback form to see how customer satisfied with the service. Then we are able to make conclusions and recommendation to result of analyzing.

4.2 Specific Procedure
After finished our questionnaire design, we had to submit it to HR department to make sure that all the needed information are not confidential. We were arranged to meet and making interview with all the leaders from concerned department. The appointments were arranged by HR department, and interviews were conducted in HR department every 2 day of the week day.
Interviews were made between three of the research project members with at least one or two leader from each department.

Project writing schedule

Date Activities
21-May-10 Proposal defense
24-May-10 Doing more research for secondary data
15-Jun-10 Design questionnaire and discuss with advisor for correcting the questionnaires
First Week of July 01-Jul-10 Interviewing with Event department
03-Jul-10 Interviewing with F&B department
05-Jul-10 Interviewing with Housekeeping department
Second Week of July 07-Jul-10 Interviewing with Security department
09-Jul-10 Interviewing with Engineering dept
11-Jul-10 Interviewing with IT Corp/Com and Front Office department
Third Week of July 16-Jul-10 Analyzed and Combination data from interview &observation.
20-Jul-10 Writing, interpreting data, and check with advisor
25-Jul-10 Making conclusion and recommendation, and get other ideas from advisor
Table 4.1 Project Writing Schedule

4.2 Research Population and Sample
To meet our 1st and 2nd objective, we have selected 3 samples from every department. Therefore, we have 12 samples out of 6 departments. Our interview were made with both management staff and simple staff.
In order to meet the 3rd objective “to measure the customer satisfaction through event feedback form”, we needed customer’s feedback and comment at the end of each event. This data was offered by banquet department because they their own feedback form to conduct this research. Therefore, out of 22 event from 1-15 July 2010, we selected 10 events which equal to 45.45% of the population.
4.3 Instrumentation
In order to gather information from different 6 departments we had designed 6 different questionnaires. Each questionnaire is specific for each department but was under the same operation of event arrangement. In customer satisfaction survey which responded to the 3rd objective, we had used banquet feedback form which is made by banquet department.
Microsoft Excel y was mostly used for data display: incorporating, constructing, and analyzing data.

4.4 Pilot Study
We have conducted small pilot study with simple staff in banquet department and housekeeping department by using our questionnaire in the first two day of our research. Then we found out that the data we got from those simple staff were insufficient to meet our objective, due to some questions are out of their responsibilities. That is why we had to make interview with both management staff and simple staff to gain all needed information.
We were not allowed to conduct pilot study among the customer (Event Organizer) of NAGA World. Therefore

4.5 Data Collection
To make our research goes smoothly and gets the reliable data, we had set schedule for the appointments for each event at NAGA World Hotel already. Talking about the appointments for making interview with samples of other departments, we will be assigned it later. The most important tool for us to collect information is being an internship in NAGA events. As the results, could involve with NAGA World Hotel in pre-event, on-site event and post event activities could to do observation. Our questionnaire was conducted to measure customer satisfaction, which they will be delivered at the end of the event. In addition, we keep working with internet and library for secondary data, other information and source.
.
4.6 Treatment of the data
After we collecting both quantitative and qualitative data it must be prepared carefully for better understanding unless data reducing. The research team would make up table and charts, with its sentence in a logical and meaningful concept below it. For qualitative data, we also displayed and analyzed via table, chart, and graphs explanation. For all the data we collected they were writing in text logical and suitable evidence to support, adding more standard outline and attractive punctuation and linking word to make the project writing looked more.

CHAPTER V
FINDING

5.1 About NAGA World

Gaming operations of Naga world began in 1995 and started profitable since 1996. At that time, Naga Corp operated the only licensed casino. The license is valid for 70 years from 2 January 1995 and is exclusive (except slot machine) within the designated area until 2035. Initial operations were conducted on a barged moored along the bank of Bassac River, before relocating to a land-based location in October 2003. Construction on NAGA world, Cambodia only integrated entertainment/casino complex, is continuing. Up on completion, it will consist of 700 hotel rooms (by the completed construction), 300 gaming tables and MICE facility. In December 2008, 200 hotel rooms were in operation along with 176 gaming tables. Full completion is ready by the end of 2009.
Naga World consists of eight-storey entertainment wings, a 14-storey hotel wing and a car park block. All eight-storey of entertainment wings are structurally complete with grown and part of the first floor. The entertainment wings fully operate with house food and beverage outlets, leisure, recreational and entertainment facilities. All 14 levels of hotel are also structurally completed with fitting work being carried out in the lobby and some hotel room.
Naga World today is a social, event, business and tourist destination, well-patronized and frequented by locals and overseas customers from both public and private sectors. Our hotel and casino complex are of international standard with a built-up area of approximately 110,768 square meters. As at 31 December 2009, Naga World offers 158 gaming tables, 618 gaming machine stations, 508 hotel rooms, 11 food and beverage outlets, a karaoke, a spa and the largest Meetings, Incentives, Conventions & Exhibitions facilities (“MICE”) in Cambodia. We have refreshed and renewed the look of the ground floor at the entertainment wing of Naga World and added a ground-floor club lounge at the hotel wing. With the completion of a multi-storey car park block in the coming year, it will house, among other things, a rooftop swimming pool, health club, offices and additional hotel rooms. Naga World is already a landmark building in Phnom Penh and any upgrade shall turn Naga World into a more attractive destination both within Cambodia and the Greater Indo-China region.
5.1.1 Vision
Vision of NAGA is to become a world class casino operator with standard
comparable to those casinos operating in the country such as Australia and United State and for Naga world, as an integrated entertainment complex, to become a perfect tourist destination, alongside Cambodia’s ancient temple of Angkor, for visitor traveling to Cambodia. The hotel wing of Naga World is the collection of entertainment, leisure and retail outlet which allow Naga to develop gaming and non-gaming revenue stream. Its focus will be to further expand its market in the PRC and ASEAN countries such as Thailand and Vietnam. In order to achieve its objective, Naga World has followed some strategies:
Expand the facilities of Naga World§
Increase marketing presence§
Strengthen and establish commercial ties with STG operator§
Expand the scope of products and services§
5.1.2 Hotel Wings
All 14 levels of hotel wings have been structurally completed with fitting being carried out in the lobby and some of the hotel rooms. The hotel wing consist of the following section:
14 levels of hotel north tower§
14 levels of hotel south tower and§
5 levels of podium block§
The hotel wings of Naga world will upon full completion house international hotel which will offer a total 508 guest room comprising:
444 standard rooms§
61 executive suites§
2 executive VIP suites§
1 presidential suite§
The hotel rooms are designed to be comparable to the other international hotel in Phnom Penh in term of quality, standard, and size. Hotel lobby house a public gaming floor encompass an area of approximately 4,264 sqm, while grand ball room situates on the level 2 has an area of approximately 1,164 sq.m, and offer banquet facilities for up to approximately 1000 person.
5.1.3 Location
The luxurious five stars Naga World Hotel sets in the prime area of Phnom Penh of Cambodia. Setting in the prime area of Phnom Penh, Naga World hotel allows to you travels to major attraction conveniently. This luxury Phnom Penh hotel’s address is Level 5, North Tower, Naga World Hun Sen Park, Phnom Penh Kingdom. By drive hotel is 30 minutes from Phnom Penh International Airport, nearest from bus stations, and the hearth of city center (River Bank).
The convenience location which is only 30 minutes from Phnom Penh International Airport and within easy access to the Royal Palace, Silver Pagoda, National Museum and Independent Monument as well as major dining and entertainment areas along the quay. 10 minutes drive to Central Market, Wat Phnom and Toul Sleung Genocide Museum, and also 30 minutes drive to Cherg Ek, “The Killing Field”.
The address of Naga World hotel is along the Samdech Hun Sen Park, Phnom Penh, Kingdom of Cambodia.
Tel: +855 2322 8822
Fax: +855 2322 5888
Web address: http://www.nagaworld.com
5.2 Facilities
Naga World hotel in Phnom Penh allows guests to spend their ideal vacation with necessary in-room and in-house facilities that provide the home away from home comfort. Business and leisure travelers will feel at ease with exclusive hotel amenity and service available at the Hotel Naga World Phnom Penh. Hotel staffs are courteous and always eager to help with their top services. Some of the facilities include:

5.2.1 Accommodation
NAGA World Hotel is the largest with 525 including 78 suites. Its guest room and suites are among the largest in Cambodia. The Naga World Phnom Penh possesses glamorous rooms and suites. Guests can select from 3 numbers of room types that are DELUXE, EXECUTIVE SUITE, DELUXE EXECUTIVE SUITE.
All rooms equipped with:
• IDD Connections
• Broadband internet access
• Satellite Channel
• LCD TV’s
• In-room-safe
• Individual climate control
• Coffee and tea making facilities
• Hair dryer
• 24 hours Room Service

Photo 5.1: Executive Suit and Deluxe room of NAGA World Hotel (Naga world factsheet VCD)

5.2.2 Restaurant

• The Pangea Fusion: Tucked inside the international facilities of Naga World complex, the newest fusion restaurant in twon boots to its myriad of cuisines brought by world-class chefs under one roof. The Pangea is home of the finest delicacies with its interactive kitchen set for your own satisfaction and delight. Offering 24/7 service by young, dynamic and friendly staff, interior buffet lines present mouth-watering world menus plus is wide selection of la carte specialties.

Photo 5.2 The Pangea Fusion Restaurant (Naga world factsheet VCD)
• Bistro Romano: Italian with contemporary influence, Bistro Romano has an innovative style; from its deliciously different culinary delights right through to its stylish ambience and casual elegance. This finest dining area also offers special catering for banquets, private or cocktail parties and themed events for special occasions. Best of all, Bistro Romano is open daily and offers a choice of a la carte- all day long, you just can get enough of what it offers best Italian Food.

Photo 5.3 Bistro Romano Restaurant (Naga world factsheet VCD)
• Korean Grill: is the famous Korean Food Restaurant located at the ground floor with Korean decoration. For exceptional value of dishes served in select authentic ingredients and recipes, Korean Grill serves a healthy cuisine recognizing the customer’s desire and appetite. Its expert Korean Chef delivers the delicately and deliciously unique taste of a variety of traditional and famous Korean menus.

Photo 5.4 Korean Grill Restaurant (Naga world factsheet VCD)
• Le gourmet: The finest Wine & and classic taste of French cuisine. For an evening of romantic gateway, perfect soothing interiors and lighting, intimate candlelight atmosphere for dinner-it leads only to cozy and chic Le Gourmet. Le Gourmet presents its famous course sets. Starting with its mouth watering, highly recommended seafood consommé flavored with saffron, then the fresh goose liver marinated in red wine, plus the superb and favorably tasteful grilled beef tenderloin wrapped in prosciutto harm and end with a perfect chocolate terrine. This and all without a miss for toast of its best house wine.

Photo 5.5 Le Gourmets Restaurant (Naga world factsheet VCD)

5.2.3 Bar
• Wine & Cigar Bar – Aristocrat: A stylish intimate venue where guest can enjoy premium beverages and cigars while listening to the mellow sound. A connoisseur of fine wine and tobacco, The Aristocrat provides a huge variety and stock of imported wines and cigars. Located on level k1 of Naga World Hotel., many diners find this to the right place to relax after big meal. Join in one of the wine tasting activities or choose from the array of wine and whisky display countries. The real aristocrat, however, knows where the best wine and best cigars are in. Regarded as the most elegant and stylish of its kind, The Aristocrat has a fine and classic interior that compliment a fitted place to start a great toast and conversation.

Photo 5.6 Wine & Cigar Bar – Aristocrat (Naga world factsheet VCD)

• Lobby Lounge
Central set in the impressive hotel lobby. Spectacular windows overlook the garden’s waterfalls and bathe the Lounge in sunlight. Lobby Lounges is where guests enjoy an afternoon tea or evening cocktail while enjoy the ambience of hotel waterfall as the guests are being serenaded themselves playing piano.

• Darlin – Darlin Club Lounge
Is a red hot spot of music and entertainment. The perfect spot for unwinding and enjoying the real Happy Hours are in the trendy, state-of –the –art façade and couch-filled interior of Darlin Darlin. This recent opened lounge brings a bit of cozy and modern look showcasing a fashionable lifestyle. With a great selection of drinks from high-end champagne, to a variety of cocktail and wines, this is what an upscale night spot is about. The décor is edgy and fresh and it attracts a young and hip crowd and appeals to the sophisticated night-lifters. With a live band performing every night, relax to the entertainment of great selections of international music or dance the night away and party until late.

Photo 5.7 Lobby Lounge and Darlin – Darlin Club Lounge (Naga world factsheet VCD)

5.2.4 Facilities of Spa, Club 88 KTV, and Entertainment
• Spa: the spa of Naga world offers quality service by experience of therapists. From neck and shoulder to a full body aromatherapy treatment, each service rooms has all but complete facilities not only for treatment but also for a relaxing bath and steam sauna detoxification. Highly rated for its cleanliness and excellent service you can totally and release stress in a real spa environment. At an affordable spa package, an earlier reservation is a best suggestion. This is the only place that gives customer a 5-stars rating spa experience.

• Casino: The largest hotel gaming facility in Cambodia. It has been designed meticulously to exude opulence and comfort, setting it apart from existing casino in the country. The casino cover 7000 sqm2 over 13 floors, and features gaming tables and slot machines of over 20 different type.
• Club 88 KTV: A top scale destination for nocturnal entertainment featuring an extensive bar list of cocktail and alcoholic drink, and seven chic private Music Pods. Club 88 is a perfect exclusive karaoke destination for a night fun and music. It features a variety of private rooms catering to various moods. Everybody can bring their group to singing and drinking engagement. Discover the star in themselves and the music that satisfies their souls.

5.2.5 Banquet and Meeting facilities
Naga World pays tribute as a perfect host. Call on their catering services to orchestrate your event with precision and flawless good taste, be it a small meeting or a big conference. Exquisite international cuisines, premium table setting, meeting amenities and the latest audio-video systems, all details professionally handled to make all events successful.

• Grand Ballroom: Naga World’s grand ballroom stand at the core of the hotel’s banqueting facilities. It can accommodate 1600 people. With the professional service, culinary excellent and innovative concepts, it is the perfect venue for conferences, social gathering, wedding and events. Grand ballroom is the big room that can be divided into 2 ballrooms that block by partition. The size of grand ballroom is about (40m*27m). The capacities of grand ballroom is:
1600 people for cocktail standing party§
1000-1200 people for meeting§
800 people for dinner§
• Meeting Room: There are 5 small meeting rooms. The room is about (14m * 17m), and each room can accommodate: 60 people for meeting, and 40 people for dinner or lunch. Meeting room 2 & 3 and 4 & 5 are divided by partition. Therefore, meeting room 2 & 3 could be merged into one big meeting room. The same as meeting room 4 & 5.
• Auditorium: is the only one auditorium that available in the heart of Phnom Penh. A dedicated team of conference and event organizer is available round the clock; focus on making every event a success through quality and flawless executive. Auditorium room is normally used for press conference which consists of 60 seats. Moreover, the room is equipped with excellence sound system.

5.3 Event Arrangement Schedule from 1-15 July
July 7, 2010
Monthly Forecast for the Month of July, 2010
Date Organization Type of Function Time Venue Pax Package Revenue Revenue Status Sales Person
Conf. Tent.
01-Jul-10 MOH FD Meeting 8:00-17:00 Ballroom 2 90 17 1530 Confirmed Kimsour
UNIDP HD Meeting 13:30-17:00 Ballroom 1 70 12 840 Confirmed Kimsour
02-Jul-10 Naga IT HD Meeting 10:00-14:00 Auditorium 150 Confirmed Kimsour
MOH FD Meeting 8:00-12:00 Ballroom 2 70 17 1190 Confirmed Kimsour
03-Jul-10 ANZ Royal HD Meeting 12:00-17:00 Ballroom 2 80 19 1520 Confirmed Kimsour
SCT 8:00-12:00 Meeting rooms 4-5 50 18 900 Confirmed Kimsour
MARUHAN Japan Bank FD Meeting 8:00-17:00 Meeting rooms 2-3 30 21 630 Confirmed Kimsour
04-Jul-10
MARUHAN Japan Bank FD Meeting 8:00-17:00 Meeting rooms 2-3 30 21 630 Confirmed Kimsour
05-Jul-10 Naga Sales & Marketing HD Meeting 10:00-13:00 Auditorium 40 150 Confirmed Kimsour
06-Jul-10
Jata FD Meeting 8:00-17:00 Meeting Room 4&5 25 22 Confirmed Chamroeun
07-Jul-10
Board meeting HD Meeting 14:00-17:00 Meeting rooms 2-3 15 300 Confirmed Kimsour
Jata FD Meeting 8:00-17:00 Meeting Room 4&5 25 22 Confirmed Chamroeun
IPTC Press Conference 8:00-12:01 Meeting Room1 Confirmed Philomena
IPTC Press Conference 8:00-12:00 Auditorium 50 300 Confirmed Mr. Hout Dara
08-Jul-10 Jata FD Meeting 8:00-17:00 Meeting Room 4&5 25 22 Confirmed Chamroeun

AAA Cambodia Meeting room 1 12 22 264 Confirmed Kimsour
Naga F&B HD Meeting 14:00-17:00 Auditorium Confirmed Kimsour

09-Jul-10 Jata FD Meeting 8:00-17:00 Meeting Room 4&5 25 22 Confirmed Chamroeun
AAA Cambodia Meeting room 1 12 22 264 Confirmed Kimsour
GlaxoSmithKline HD Meeting 8:00-12:00 Meeting room 3 12 21 252 Confirmed Kimsour
10-Jul-10 GlaxoSmithKline HD Meeting 8:00-12:00 Ballroom 1 100 19 1900 Confirmed Kimsour

11-Jul-10
Bithday (Nary) Dinner Reception 100
12-Jul-10
13-Jul-10
14-Jul-10 VN FD Meeting Meeting room 1
Block VN Exhibition Ballroom 1
MOH HD Meeting 08:00-17:00 Ballroom 2 200 21 4200 Confirmed Kimsour
15-Jul-10 VN FD Meeting Meeting room 1
Block VN Exhibition Ballroom 2
IPCT Gala Dinner 17.00-22.00 Ballroom1 100 Tentative Chamroeun

Table 5.1: Monthly Event Forecast Schedule
During1 to 15 July 2010 is the period of low season of event arrangement that is why the monthly schedule of event is not very busy. We could see most of the functions during this period are meeting. Types of function during the period of 1 to 15 July 2010:
• There are totally 19 meetings which conducted in NAGA World Hotel from 1-15 July 2010, it is including 10 full day meetings and 9 half day meetings.
• 2 Gala dinner, first dinner is birthday party is on 11 July 2010 accommodate 100 attendees, second dinner was Gala dinner of IPCT on 15 July 2010 accommodate 100 attendees.
• 2 Press Conference from IPTC on 7 July 2010 in Auditorium and Meeting room 1.
• 1 Exhibition from Vietnam Expo on 15 July 2010 in ballroom 2

The range of price of package is from 12 $ to 22 $ for one person.

5.4 MICE Coordination Process

Event Operation

Figure 5.1: Event Operation Process

5.4.1 Pre-event function
5.4.1.1 Sale & Marketing department:
Event sale marketing department is the department that takes big part in event preparation. It is the department that handling the reservation and establishing the BEO for each event. Delivering update information departments to all departments involved.

5.4.1.1.1 Reservation Handle Pre-Function
• Conduction site visit: it is the stage that is responsible by sales and marketing to ensure that customers are convinced and encourage choose NAGA world hotel as meeting facilities. Customers is encourage through:
Special price ( better price we compare with other competitors with the same class)§
Special offered§
Cooperate with regular customer or government institution§

• Negotiation and contract: when the customer willing to make the reservation, they will make the negotiation and design the contract.
All the information and the requirement which is state in the contract will be use as the detail duties to design BEO (Banquet Event Order). It lists all the requirement of the customers. Sales and marketing here also perform as a consultant to the event organizer and help them to make decision about:
• Date and Time
• Person estimated
• Set up standard
• Decoration
• Technology support that customer might need

Sales and marketing department assign one person who is the event operator who is going to work with event organizer since the beginning until the end of event. Here, sales have to coordinate between the customer and the hotel to make sure that the requirement of the customer mostly met together with five stars hotel standard. Some requirement from customers might affect the quality of the facilities and services providing.
For example: sometime event organizer asks to put to many participants in one meeting or conference room in order to save cost. This is the challenge that sales marketing department has to clear and consider whether it is possible to do that or not. To answer with this question, sales and marketing department has to work closely with banquet department. They both consider whether the request amount of people will be affect the service quality and facility.
Some requirements has to be confirmed directly from the banquet department that is why in some special event banquet department has to be involved since the negotiation and contract stag. Therefore, it must be clear between the customers and the service provider without miscommunication.
Moreover, this department negotiates on some important points which are very useful for other departments before each event is handed over.
Banquet and Sales & Marketing work together to get reservation confirmed

Figure 5.2: Banquet and sale &marketing department working together to get event reservation confirmed
5.4.1.1.2 Arrangement
In arrangement process is the stage when events are confirmed. The information about the function must spread out weekly to all the departments which will take part in event arrangement. Sales & marketing sent out every Saturday the schedule of weekly event up date all together with Banquet Event Order. Therefore, all departments are supposed to receive this attachment every week that is the reason why they are able to plan on time.
Information spread out through department involved

Figure 5.3: Information flow from sales and marketing department to other department

5.4.1.1.3 Challenges of Event Department
Base on the interview with event sale and marketing who is the event operator in NAGA World Hotel, he showed the positive thinking and attitude that all the information that he has spread out to all department are very effective in the rate of 95%. It means that the information is received and immediately getting responses. However, only 5% of the information that were received late by other department. This missing caused little impact to the event operation because NAGA has enough main power and staff. Therefore, they can reflect to the situation quickly without problems. However, it might be the big problem some days if they do not looking for any solution for this negative points.
In short, sale and marketing department is the person that always stands between customers and company. They have to handle customers’ changes and refer them to all departments that involve with. They have to keep everybody happy both side, customers satisfied and company happy without losing the profit.
It is not easy to do, while we are saying it and knowing how to do it, said event sales and marketing. After events are finished, they always have a meeting once or twice a month to evaluate all the achievement and things to improve. Sale operator frequently was asked to improve regarding clear information to avoid too many changes required by.

Figure 5.4 The effectiveness and ineffectiveness chart of information spread out by Event Department

Source: Event sale and marketing’s estimation during interview

5.4.1.2 Banquet Department
After, banquet receives weekly event forecast and BEO for each event. Then they have to confirm back to event department to make sure that the information is received. They have to be well prepared and allocate their staffs to handle each event. In BEO states all the banquet department responsibilities, so they follow all the required set-up.
5.4.1.2.1 Responsibilities of Banquet department
Set-up the room is the primary activities of banquet department. Set-up style is followed through BEO which state all the requirement of the customer. The set-up stages including:
• Skeleton/Lay out: is the first stage of set-up that just shape and place the table in the order and comfortable style. For big meeting or party this stage has to be checked with event organizer whether they satisfy with this shape of table set up or not. There are different lay out table between meeting/conference and party. Also there are many styles of meeting set up table such as:
Boadmeeting§
Long table§
Class room style§
U-shape§
Square§
Round table§
• Set-up:
Dinner set-up is the stage that we place all the galleries on the§ table. All galleries placed on the table depend on kind of meal, buffet galleries set up style is different from menu set galleries. Those primary equipments are silver ware, glass ware, china ware, napkin, menu, flower etc.

• Maximum Time Required for Set up
Base on our survey and interview through our questionnaire, we have found the maximum time required for each type of event.
Type of function Below 50 people 50-100 people 100-200 people More than 200 people
Meeting/conference 60 mn 120 mn 180 mn 240 mn
Gala Dinner 120 mn 180 mn 240 mn 300 mn

Table 5.2 Maximum Time Required for Set Up

Meeting set up:
• For the meeting with less that 50 pax, required maximum time 60 minutes for set up lay out and all the stationary
• Meeting between 50-100 pax, maximum time required 120 minutes for set up
• Meeting between 100-200 pax, maximum time required 180 minutes for set up
• Meeting for more than 200 pax, maximum time required 240 minutes for set up
We can see than they need extra 60 minutes for every extra 100 pax for meeting room set up. This statistic is valid and equivalence with the number of permanent staff in banquet department during 1-15 July 2010.
Gala Dinner set up:
• Dinner with below 50 pax required maximum 120 minutes for set up
• Dinner with 50-100 pax required maximum 180 minutes for set up
• Dinner with 100-200 pax required maximum 240 minutes for set up
• Dinner with more than 200 pax required maximum 300 minutes for set up
Finally we could see dinner required much time more than meeting set up. However, it required extra 60 minutes for every extra 100 pax which is the same as meeting set up

Menu-set table Buffet set-up table
Photo 5.8 Menu set table and Buffet set-up table ( Naga World Hotel Factsheet, VCD)
Meeting/conference set-up: stationary, water, glass, candy need to be on meeting table.§
Coffee break set-up: coffee break set-up is set outside meeting room§ at the foyer. It is set similar to buffet style and also similar to cocktail stand. Normally, food of coffee break includes coffee & tea, fruit juice, snack, and fresh fruits.

Photo 5.9 Meeting set-up with class room style & Coffee break set-up at foyer (Naga World Hotel Factsheet, VCD)

5.4.1.2.2 The Challenges of Event Operation from Banquet Department
Assistant Banquet Manager:
Mostly they receive information regarding event arrangement schedule from e-mail sending from event and sale department once a week every Saturday. The information are including time table of monthly event forecast and BEO for each event during next week. 90% of the information is clear and realizable, said assistant banquet manager. They have to be ready waiting any changes required by customer might be appear later. However, they have never missed or late to receive any information which is spread out by event and sale department.
It is not easy satisfied customers if they always change and change. Some time they thing they like what they decided to do, but when they see the result of their decision they might change their mind and ask for more changing. Event those changes are charged or not, staff must be not happy to do the same and same things. Other challenge is to control risk during on-site event. Risk can be happen all the time during the event, enough staff must be stand by around all the time.
Briefing between banquet staff after the each event is finished to evaluate team performance and find out the problem during on-site event.
Figure 5.5 Clear and Unclear information chart by banquet department

Source: Assistant Banquet Manager’s Estimation during interview

Banquet Supervisor and Banquet Service Staff:
Information is transfer from their senior who is the assistant banquet manager. They must handle all the information and requirements which are list in detail in the BEO. Base on the interview, they have never missed any information from their senior. Only last minute meeting or event, they are inform to arrange immediately, so they have to be in rush. It is hard to provide the best services to some high class customers, who experience the luxurious environment with high standard services. They have to be very alert, fast and flexible all the time. However, they cannot perfectly satisfy them. Another challenge that they often face is rearrange by the customers’ requirement. They better clear before sign the contract, said the service staff, because it is boring repeat such boring work.

5.4.1.3 Kitchen
Main kitchen normally also receives information directly from sale and marketing department in the form of BEO. They make food order through the number of pax estimated by sale and marketing. Some event including dinner in some of the restaurant, so this information also spread to the specific restaurant that will responsible for supporting food to event. Kitchen has never met any problem regarding lacking of food because they have main resources to support effectively. The challenges that kitchen has pay attention about is to improve the service quality of food, and update information with sale and marketing department.
Kitchen receives information from Event department every Saturday in the form of Schedule of event forecast and BEO. BEO is the important tool that Kitchen use to make purchasing by using number of predicted participants. The only challenge of Kitchen is to make food to satisfied most of the customers. Kitchen uses to get some complaints regarding food taste. But it is not easy at all to make food with one taste that suit to all people.
5.4.1.4 Housekeeping/Florist
The job of a hotel housekeeper is to keep all rooms clean. This includes a variety of services depending on the room’s occupants. For a standard occupied room, this will involve basic cleaning duties. For a room where the occupants have just checked out, the job is more difficult and involves turning over nearly everything in the room. A check-out room must be so neat and clean that the new occupants cannot tell that another family may have vacated the room only a few hours earlier. Some occupants who are in the hotel room when the housekeeper arrives or are perhaps ill and spending the day in bed may prefer service known as trash and towels.
5.4.1.4.1 Responsibilities Pre- Function
Normally, housekeeping department receive last update of schedule weekly event forecaster from sale marketing department together with BEO. Base on BEO and weekly event forecast, housekeeping department is able to arrange staff to support the event on time. Assistant housekeeping manager who is responsible for this task states that he has never missed any information around event arrangement at all. After, he gets the information, he has to reply back to sale & marketing department to ensure that the information is confirm.
There are 26 PA and 167 room housekeepers in housekeeping department. 3 and supervisors and 20 shift leaders monitor over all housekeeping staffs. Because Ballroom and meeting room level 2 is occasionally function, so it doesn’t need staffs to work there every day. Therefore, no housekeeper specific for banquet and meeting room, but staff work and stand by in event area is assigned by assistant housekeeping manager. Assistant housekeeping managers is the person who assigns roster, so he must get all the information about where and when to put more PA or housekeeping staffs. He is the one who can allocate his main power effectively and efficiency.

Maximum Time Required of Cleaning for Pre-event function

Event Area Meeting Room Ball Room Grand Ball Room
Before Set Up After Set Up Before set up After set up Before set up After set up
Time Required 30 mn 15 mn 60 mn 40 mn 120 mn 80 mn
Total Time 45 mn 100mn 200mn
Number of staff 1 2 2
Table 5.3: Maximum Time required of cleaning of pre-event function

This is the time estimated by PAs who standby at meeting and ballroom area. It is quite hard for housekeeping, engineering and banquet work together at the same time, so housekeeping is the one who start work early than other to clean the whole area of the event. After set up is done, housekeeping clean again to make sure everything is ok.
No matter how many people will join the event, housekeeping working depend on how big of space of event area:
o Meeting Room: maximum time required for keep clean is 45 minutes
o Ballroom: maximum time required for keep clean is 100 minutes
o Grand ballroom (2 ballrooms): required double time of cleaning ballroom totally is 200 minutes.
o For normal meeting or conference 2 to 3 staffs standby in rest room and public area(foyer),
o 5 to 6 staffs standby for VIP event. The responsibilities of housekeeper and PA in one event including:
• Clean: keep clean in meeting room such vacuum on the carpet, clean the wall
• Rest room: keep clean in the rest room and equip the rest room with good smell, face tissue, handkerchief,
• New décor is required: tree, flower.
• Standby staffs

5.4.1.4.2 The Challenges of Event Operation from Housekeeping Department
Housekeeping Manager:
Every Saturday each week, he always receive e-mail about time table of monthly event forecast together with BEO for the next week. 99% of the information is clear and realizable. Very few small event that do last minute cancel, that is why housekeeping department does not have much trouble with the operation. Even no function in the ballroom or meeting room, they also need to clean. The only one difficulties is repeating their work while pre-event arrangement in the process. One more difficulties is perform work in VIP event, that everybody must be very careful all the time.

Figure 5.6 Clear and unclear information chat of housekeeping department

Source: Housekeeping Manager’s Estimation during interview
Assistant Housekeeping Manager:
He receives all the information from his manager, and the information is clear and realizable. He has never had any big trouble regarding event operation. That is why mostly, housekeeping department always get admiration and encouragement regarding their hard work and good performance.

Public Area:
They are always informed by housekeeping supervisor and assistant housekeeping manger. So they just perform work base on assignment from their senior. They have never had any complain from customer or their senior about event operation. On the other hand they get only admiration during housekeeping meeting. They are encouraged to continue their well performance for the next event.

5.4.1.5 Engineering
Base on our interview with the engineering supervisor and engineer coordinator they told us that every Saturday they always receive email of weekly event forecast and BEO for each event for next week. Through the BEO, engineering staffs follow all the requirements from the event organizer. In the planning process of some special event, event organizer take part in preparing with this department to make sure what they ordered is fully satisfied.

5.4.1.5.1 Main Responsibilities Pre-Function
Engineering is one of all departments involved that play important roles during each event. It is the department that works with electronic, and ensures all those electricity systems and equipments work smoothly and effectively. The responsibilities are:
• Audio visual system
• Sound system
• Lighting system
• Air-conditioner
• Plasma TV
During the 15 days of observation at NAGA world hotel, we can see most of event is meeting that require many types electronic equipment. Most common responsibilities of engineering department are preparing standard lighting and sound system, LCD projector and help event organizer to connect it at the beginning of the meeting, arrange microphone as requirement.
This department work separately from banquet set up, they can perform work at the same time in set up process. Therefore, banquet department and engineering department are able finish their work at the similar time. Maximum time required for this department in set up is shown in the table below:

Maximum Time Required for Engineering for set up:
Function and Area Meeting/conference concert/modeling Staff Stand By
Meeting Room 30 mn 2
Grand Ball Room 60 mn 240 mn 4
Table 5.3: Maximum Time Required for Engineering Set Up

• Meeting and conference: are the normal event for engineering department in set up, that is why they are require only 30 mn for set up in the meeting room and 60 mn for set up in grand ballroom. Only 2 staffs stand by as engineering coordinators at the event area.
• Concert or Modeling: these kinds of event required stage set up and complicate lighting and sound system, so it required maximum 4 hours with 4 staffs working together.
Note: the set up time is not include the time for rehearsal with event organizer and the time for making changes.
5.4.1.5.2 Challenges of Event Operation from Engineering Department
Engineering Supervisor:
Like the other department, engineering department also receive the information about event arrangement every Saturday by e-mail. The information are including schedule of event forecast and next week BEO. Information is always clear and realizable. Because it not easy to make change with those electric equipment. Sometime customer has to be with engineering when they setting up all the requirement equipment to make sure that the requirements are met. However we cannot avoid 100% from last minute changes from the customer, it is depend on whether it is possible to change or not, said engineering supervisor.
Mostly, it is hard to work with machine but it easy if we are well prepare in advance. The most important strategies for engineering department is to be well prepare, so everything must be in our hand and we can control it. Testing to check to make sure it works properly to avoid unexpected risk. Naga World Hotel just new hotel, so all the equipments are new, so it does cause any significant trouble. That is the reasons why they have never get any complain from customer regarding engineering and sound system.
Figure 5.7 Realizable and Unrealizable information chart by Engineering Department

Source: Engineering Supervisor’s Estimation during Interview
Engineering Staff:
They perform work base on BEO and assigned work from manager and supervisor, so the information mostly the get from their supervisor and manager. The information that they get from them is always clear and realizable. They have never had any trouble with the operation. It must be the big challenging if they cannot control during the period of the operation. To control it easily, we have to clear and test it in advance, so everything must be in our hand. Team meeting is always conducted twice a month regularly, and urgent meeting also conducted as needed as the assigned by engineering manager.

5.4.1.6 Security
The same as other department, security department also performs work base on BEO and weekly event forecast. Naga security department are proud to ensure that they are very well arrange in security system for each event and also well equipped with security equipment or system. The equipments or systems that are use to deal with unexpected danger is:
Fire-safety system:
Sprinkler every 1,5mm2§
Fire extinguisher§
Fired-hydrant§
Safe Exits:
Casino- 2 exits/floor§
Hotel: 8-10 exits/floor§
Ballroom-level2 :6 exits§
5.4.1.6.1 Main Responsibilities of Security Department
Security department does not take much time in preparing for an event. Actually they perform work outside the event area. Due to security department is divided into 2 different departments. They uniform security and in house security. They perform different duties in event arrangement:
Uniform Security:
• Briefing to delegate the responsibilities
• Assist guess at the parking lot
• Assist information to all attendees
In house security:
• Standby around meeting room and grand ballroom only VIP event
• Keeping safety for VIP events

Maximum Time required arranging for event
Type of Event Timed Required Department In Charge
Normal Event 30 mn Uniform security
VIP Event 60 mn In house + Uniform security

Table 5.5: Maximum Time Required for Arranging for Event of Security Department

• 30 minutes only that uniform security need for briefing and delegating pre-event function.
• However, in house security together with uniform security needs 60 minutes for briefing and delegating the duty.
5.4.1.6.2 Challenges of Event Operation from Security Department
Uniform Security Manager:
Security department also get information from event department through e-mail by every Saturday which specific about date and time. Information that they receive is clear and realizable. Enough main power is the strong point that Naga is able to ensure the security for the guest including normal and special event. Naga has never got any complain regarding the security problem in each event.
In-house Security Staff:
They perform work base on the assignment from the manager one week before. In case VIP event will be inform very long time before. Staff will get extra training and work with some modern equipment which help to ensure the security. Inhouse security staff seem to be highly responsible in VIP event that uniform security. Event it is a bit high pressure, Naga have never gotten any complain about security problem.
Uniform Security:
They are inform specifically about date and time of event which will be hold on the ball room, they help to assist guest through the parking lot and also assist information about the event also. At least, he can tell the guest where the ballroom is. The only challenge for security is parking space. Limited parking space cannot accommodate too many motors or cars while big event is celebrating. This is a complain that Naga World Hotel has to handle from many customers.

5.4.1.7 IT/Corp Com and Signage Front office
IT/Corp Com and Signage: not every event needs this department, it help event organizers to design sign from the entrance for some special event. Sometime it display video clip from event organizer in front of the meeting room.
Front Office: this supported department also takes part in assisting information to the guesses; they have to be very up date with event information every day.

These two departments do play big roles in the event operation, but they are important. For front office department, they help to assist the guest from the entrance to the ballroom or the meeting room. Therefore, they have to clear about date and time and what event will happen in the meeting room and ballroom area. No real challenge or difficulties from this two department.
Sample of Banquet Event Order (BEO)

BANQUET EVENT ORDER
BEO #: 0332
Printed On 01/07/2010
Company: JATA –Japan Anti Tuberculosis Type of Function: Full Day Meeting
Contact Person Ms. Sang Remy
Position: Accounting
Address No. 6, Street. 288, Phnom Penh, Kingdom of
Cambodia Contact number Tel: 855 12 859 092
Operate Person Mr. Siv Chamroeun, 015 88 11 58 PM Folio#

DATE TIME ROOM Function
SET UP
GTD EXP

6.July.10
8.00 to 17.00
Meeting room4,5 – Level 2
Meeting

Classroom

25
30
MENU BANQUET OPERATION

– Morning coffee break: Set up time: 9.30 – 10.00 am at foyer
Coffee & tea, 2 kind of chilled juices, 3 kinds of fresh fruit & 3 kinds of snack items
(As per recommendation by the In-house Chef)

– Lunch Set Up : 12.00 pm till 13.00 pm
– Set International Buffet at Fusion Restaurant – 01st Floor

– Afternoon coffee break: Set up time: 15.15pm till 15.30 at foyer
Coffee & tea, 2 kind of chilled juices, 3 kinds of fresh fruit & 3 kinds of snack items
(As per recommendation by the In-house Chef)

– Set up Room with Stationary ( Pen, Candies. Water.mint)
– Set up Classroom Style for 30 persons
– Arrange 1-flipchart with paper and marker
– One White Board with Marker
– One podium
– One Table for MC
– One Receptionist Table front of meeting room with basket flower
– Coffee break set up at foyer

AV ( AUDIO /VISUAL)

– Sound system& Lighting
– Turn on air-con 1hours before
function start
– Assist guest in connecting LCD Projector
– Set up one LCD Projector and screen for complimentary
– Two Mikes Standby
– one Mike on Podium

BEVERAGE HOUSEKEEPING

– Coffee/Tea: To be ready set up by 7.30 am
– 2 kind of chilled juice for coffee break
– Water during lunch

– Please kindly clean the function room before the event
– Arrange staff to stand by at rest room

IT / CORP COM / SIGNAGE FLORIST
– Signage will prepare by our Catering Side

– Basket Flower on Receptionist Table
– One small Basket Flower on Podium
– one basket flower on MC table

FRONT OFFICE SECURITY
– Please brief your staff to assist guest to meeting room4,5 – Level 2
– Please assist guest in parking and guide to meeting room4,5 – Level 2
BILLING INSTRUCTION INTERNAL BREAKDOWN
Full day meeting with Coffee Break package US$ 25nett per person

– USD 25.00 X 25= $ 625
– Balance = $ 625

The bill will be signed by Ms. Sang Remy, Accounting
JATA – Japan Anti Tuberculosis
No. 6, Street. 288, Phnom Penh, Kingdom of
Tel: 855 23 213 347
HP: 855 12 859 092
Email: pr_remy@yahoo.com

Breakdown:
– Morning Coffee Break: US$ 4.50
– Afternoon Coffee Break US$ 4.50
– Buffet Lunch = US$.12 / PAX
– Banquet Beverage US$ 1

Figure 5.4: BEO (Banquet Event Order), (Chamrouen, Naga World Hotel)

5.4.1.8 Check List
Before set up is done is 100%, each department check on their own check lists. Even sales and marketing department they also have their check list to double check on everything. Normally check list is done base on BEO. If everything is completed base on the requirement of events’ organizers mean that 90% is done. In some event, event organizer will involve in the set up process to make sure that all their need are met.
5.4.2 Onsite Event Activities
After set up and everything is ready, all departments together in operation.

Figure 5.9: Onsite Event Chart

5.4.2.1 Supervision during Function

While event is in the process in the meeting room or ballroom, we could see staff from each department stand by around event area at least 1 to 2 hours before event started.
Security: at the parking lot, so they are the first person help to move people into event area.
Front office: assist information to the guesses and refer them to the right direction
Engineering: Assist event organizer at the beginning in meeting with electronic equipment such LCD.
Event operator: stand by around to see all things are running smoothly and trouble shoot.
Banquet department: set up coffee break gallery and serving during coffee break.
Kitchen: Move in food and beverage to the foyer 30 minute before meeting break
Housekeeping: stand by in the rest room and in the foyer keeping clean
Everybody in the event area is able to move people in the right place of event function.
5.4.2.2 Trouble Shooting
In case there is any problem that might go wrong which is not expected, information is passed immediately to the person who responsible for the related problem. The key person at on site event is banquet department and engineering department because this 2 department work very closely in the operation. This 2 department have to be with event organizer since the beginning until the end of event.

5.4.3 Post Event Activities
In post event activity, NAGA World was divided it into two parts. There are the staff meeting and customer satisfaction evaluation. For these two indicators can help NAGA World to understand well about the quality of their service because it can help management of NAGA world measure the idea and impress feeling from two parties in different site. Sometime, it can complete the each other with inadequate points from customer and staff. Here is the process of conduct the post event activities include staff meeting and customer satisfaction.
5.4.3.1 Measuring the Customer Satisfaction

Banquet Feedback Form is the special tool that NAGA use to measure of customer satisfaction over each service that NAGA provides to the customer. They get feedbacks from customer through 10 different criteria which are divided in 3 different categories. They are including:
1. Sales and Catering
a. Reservation handling pre-function
b. Arrangement
c. Supervision during event
2. Function set up:
a. Room set up suited to customers’ need
b. Facilities conductive for the meeting
c. Lighting and sound system
d. Cleanliness of facilities
3. Food and Beverage
a. Service personality, friendly, helpful, and efficient
b. Food & Beverage taste and quality
c. Food & Beverage Presentation
The last section is the overall comment from event organizers.
We have selected 10 banquet feedback forms randomly from 25 event which are conducted from 1st to 15th July 2010.

5.4.3.1.1 Sales and Catering
Sales and Catering Excellent Good Fair
Reservation Handle Pre-Function 1 10% 9 90% 0 0%
Arrangement 3 30% 7 70% 0 0%
Supervision During Function 3 30% 6 60% 1 10%

Table 5.6 Sales and Catering Survey
– Excellent: Clearly negotiation, well prepare, fast and confidential between event organizer and Banquet department.
– Good: Everything is going well between event organizer and banquet department, but it still remains a few points is not perfect or well done; however, those few point is acceptable.
– Fair: It seems to be bad and a problem because reservation Handle pre-function is the most important, in case something going wrong, it will strongly effect to the hold event.

Reservation Handle Pre-Function

Figure 5.10 Reservation Handle Pre-Function Chart
In the statistic show that 90% of the customer (Event Organizer) says the reservation handling pre function is good, and another 10% say excellent. Therefore, we could see most the reservation handle pre function service of sales and marketing is acceptable for most of the customers. At lease of customers are really satisfied with this kind of service.
Arrangement
– Excellent: Professional preparation, clear responsible for all staff and everything look standard.
– Good: Everything is going well, but it still remains a few points is not perfect or well done; however, those few point is acceptable.
– Fair: Some problems will occur and effect some customer satisfaction.

Figure 5.11 Arrangement Survey Chart
In the arrangement service, we could see 70% say it is good, 30% say it is excellent, nobody say fair. This means that arrangement services provided by NAGA World Hotel are satisfactory for most of the customers. However, percentage of the customers who say it is good is higher than who say it is excellent. NAGA better has a look on this rate, and try to maximize

Supervision during Function
– Excellent: Professional Management, clear responsibility understanding, and flexible.
– Good: Everything is going well, but it still remains a few points is not perfect or well done; however, those few point is acceptable.
– Fair: Some problems will occur and effect some customer satisfaction.

Figure 5.12: Supervision during Function Survey Chart

There are 30% of event organizers are very satisfied with the supervision during function service of NAGA, and 60% consider it is good and acceptable. However, there is 10% of customers are not really satisfied with supervision during function. Supervision during function is always the strong point of NAGA World Hotel, and they always get positive comment from the customers. 10% of customers who say that the supervision during function is fair due to lacking of banquet staffs who stand by during the event.

5.4.3.1.2 Function Set Up

Function set up Excellent Good Fair
Room set up suite to need 3 30% 6 0% 1 10%
Facilities conductive for meeting 0 0% 10 0% 0 0%
Lighting and sound system 2 20% 5 50% 3 30%
Cleanliness of facilities 4 40% 5 50% 1 10%

Table 5.7: Function Set Up

– Excellent: Professional decoration, follow through the customer’s order.
– Good: Everything is going well, but it still remains a few points is not perfect or well done; however, those few point is acceptable.
– Fair: Some decorations problems will occur and effect some customer satisfaction.

Room Set up Suited to Need

– Excellent: Professional decoration, follow through the customer’s order.
– Good: Everything is going well, but it still remains a few points is not perfect or well done; however, those few point is acceptable.
– Fair: Some decorations problems will occur and effect some customer satisfaction

Figure 5.13: Room Set Up Suited to Need Survey Chart
There are 30% of the customers say that room set up is excellently suited to their needs, 60% prefer the services because their requirements always met. Even some time, there are requirement to changes after set up, they are able to response to the need immediately. However, there are 10% still treat room set up is not very suited to their needs. This dissatisfaction may due to unclear negotiation since the stage, customers’ experiences, and the needs of customers themselves are not clear.

Facilities Conductive for Meeting
– Excellent: Professional decoration, follow through the customer’s order.
– Good: Everything is going well, but it still remains a few points is not perfect or well done; however, those few point is acceptable.
– Fair: Some decorations problems will occur and effect some customer satisfaction.

Figure 5.14: Facilities Conductive during Function
Facility conductive during function is the best service that can gain 100 % of satisfaction from the customer. NAGA World Hotel is new hotel which just begin to serve the facility for event arrangement, so all the equipment, gallery, and facilities are new and very modern. That is why 100 percent of the customers are satisfied with the facilities. Most of the event organizers who experienced in event arrangement in NAGA World Hotel always come back again. This is because of NAGA World Hotel design for good facilities to match the need of the current need.

Lighting and Sound System
– Excellent: the sound is adopted well with situation, can order and change fast and easy. The lighting has enough bright and modern equipment
– Good: Everything is going well, but it still remains a few points is not perfect or well done; however, those few point is acceptable.
– Fair: It seems to be bad and a problem.

Figure 5.15: Lighting and Sound System

Lighting and sound system is able to satisfied 20% of customers excellently, and together with 60% of customers said it is good, while another 20% are really not satisfied. Increasing of the dissatisfaction statistic of customers who say that it is just fair equal to statistic of the customers who say that it is excellent, it really the big challenges for NAGA to do service recovery because totally 80% of customer already satisfied with lighting and sound system.

Cleanliness of Facilities
– Excellent: Everywhere is clean with good smell.
– Good: Almost everywhere is clean and good smell
– Fair: Some place not clean and bad smell

Figure 5.16: Cleanliness of Facilities
It is really proud about housekeeping department that their work performance can gain 40% of customers who excellently satisfied with the cleanliness of the facilities, and also 50% of customers said it is good. There are only 10% who are not really satisfied with this. So we could see most of the customers are really satisfied with the cleanliness of the facilities while only small low rate of the customers who are not really satisfied. Normally, housekeeping department always get positive feedback from the customer as well as from evaluate meeting every the end to each event. Due to enough main power, they can allocate staffs to perform work effectively.

5.4.3.1.3 Food and Beverage
Food and Beverage Excellent Good Fair
Service personal friendly, helpful and efficiency 1 10% 9 90% 0 0%
Food & Beverage Taste and Quality 2 20% 1 10% 7 70%
Food & Beverage Presentation 2 20% 4 40% 4 40%

Table 5.8: Food and Beverage

Service Personal, friendly, helpful and efficient
– Excellent: Very friendly, understanding, flexible, fast and efficiency.

– Good: Everything is going well, but it still remains a few points is not perfect or well done; however, those few point is acceptable

– Fair: taste not acceptable to most customer satisfaction

Figure 5.17 Service Personal Friendly, Helpful and Effective

There are 90% of the customers said good for the service personal, friendly, helpful and efficient, while only 10% said that it is excellent. Actually only 4 permanent waiters totally serving in banquet department, other part time staffs are contact only during special or big event. Therefore, it seems like there are not enough staff to serve during the low season of event arrangement. Even they try to serve the customer perfectly, it is still out of standard of service in 5 stars hotel.

Food and Beverage Taste and Quality

– Excellent: Very delicious, fast, and fresh quality.

– Good: Everything is going well, but it still remains a few points is not perfect or well done; however, those few point is acceptable

– Fair: Food and beverage are not really interesting

Figure 5.18 Food and Beverage Taste and Quality

In food and beverage taste and quality, only 20% of customers say it is excellent, 10% say it is good while 70% say that it is just fair. We could see the peak statistic of customer dissatisfaction on food and beverage taste and quality. This is the comment that NAGA World Hotel always get from the different customers. It is hard for NAGA to make service recovery due to people always be satisfied with different taste. When NAGA try to make a taste to satisfied one customer; then it might be dissatisfied with another customer. This is the challenge which is quite hard to find the solution.

Food and Beverage Presentation

– Excellent: Follow by standard or customer request. It is not too fast and also not too late, and also interested food type.

– Good: Everything is going well, but it still remains a few points is not perfect or well done; however, those few point is acceptable

– Fair: Food and beverage just only acceptable.

Figure 5.19 Food and Beverage Presentation

40% of the customers say that food and beverage presentation is good and also 40% say that it is fair while another 10% of the customers say it is excellent. This statistic still illustrates high level of customer dissatisfaction. In food and beverage section, the statistic of customer of dissatisfaction is a bit higher than other service section. NAGA World Hotel better pay attention and improve on food and beverage services.
5.4.3.2 Evaluated Meeting
Every big event always requires 2 meetings which are pre-event meeting and post event meeting. Twice meetings a month for just normal events is required, it is normally in the middle of the month and at the end of the month. This meeting is among representatives from each department which much involving in MICE. They are including banquet department, housekeeping department, engineering department, security department, food and beverage department, sale and marketing department.
The objectives of the meeting are:
– Find out problem happen during the on-site event
– Presentation the feedback from customer
– Find solution to the problem
– Find out things to improve for the next event
Event sales and marketing department is the coordinator in this evaluated meeting. During the meeting, is the one who raise the problem which occurred during the event and the problem that department faced with. Most, the result in the month of our research dedicated the service quality in MICE arrangement is running in the good process. All member of team try their best to service customer and also cooperate smoothly. Moreover, they can manage their responsible well. All departments also work on time and quality because they get enough and on time schedule from banquet department.

Base on BFF analysis and evaluated meeting, they found both negative and positive feedback from the colleague and from the customers as well.

Positive Feedback: Most of the services that NAGA provides to the customers are satisfied. Mostly the results of the meeting are good, and all of the departments are encouraged to keep good working.
Negative Feedback: However, there are some challenges and complain from customers over some points such as:
• Taste of food and food presentation is very often appear as negative feedback from the customers
• Overall comment from the customer also very frequently raising about the difficulty in parking lot area due to the small space.

5.4.4 Challenges in MICE Coordination at NAGA World Hotel

Through interview and our observation with different department, we have found some challenges during event operations. The problems have been rose during evaluation meeting.
– Missing information: As we state above that information will be sent out to different department in the form of BEO together with updated monthly event forecast through e-mail. Therefore, e-mail is the special tool in spreading information. However, there still gap between this communications. Sometime the information is missing because they too busy and forget to check e-mail. This is going to make them in rush if they get information so late.
– Unclear Negotiation: unclear negotiation with between sales and marketing department with the event organizer. Due to the unclear communication, it affects the set up process of other department including banquet department, engineering and housekeeping. When set up is finished, sometime the set up is not satisfied the event organizer and things have to be changed to satisfied customers. Every change is not easy because it is going to affected to reset up.
– Last minutes changes: some event organizers want to make changes on set up after set up is ready. Even they state clearly in the negotiation, they will change if they find out that they set up is not good as they want.
– Food taste service recovery: chicken is hard to deal with this difficulty. They aware that there are always comments from customers about taste of food, but they can not satisfied with every customer.
– Another challenge in banquet department is service quality, and personal service. Only 4 for permanent waiters who work during function during the research period that is why they cannot provide the excellent services to the customer because 90% of the customer said it was just good, and only 10% that said it was excellent. They will hire more part time staffs only for big events. Sometime it is hard to find part time staffs who equipped with experience with just short time.
– Parking space: even the parking space of NAGA is big, but it is still not enough space to support when there are any big event.

CHAPTER VI
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMEDATION

6.1 Summary

Through 15 days study and the observation on the process of MICE coordination during 1 to 15 July 2010, we can learn how they work together to operate each event include all main steps pre-event, on-site event and post event.
For pre event activity, it explores clearly about responsibility and duty for each department and let us understands that all departments are important and need working together. First of all, event department is the first person who responsible for selling meeting room and implicate the marketing strategies to attract more potential customers. This department also keeps good relationship with customers to ensure the customer loyalty. That is why most customers who come to organize the event in NAGA world hotel are the old customer whom used to be satisfied by the service offered of NAGA world. After each reservation is confirmed, event department has to send the last update of weekly event forecast every Saturday to all department involve in event arrangement. Weekly event forecast is the schedule that lists all the events including confirm and might be confirm during the week. Beside weekly event forecast schedule, event department also has to send BEO to all departments involve. It lists down all the requirements of the each event organizer during function. Banquet department is the key person who is transferred the responsibilities from the event department, and it takes part on function set-up depend on different type of event. Events that require food, the information has to be spread to kitchen and restaurant, in order to make them to be well prepared. AV system is controlled under engineering department, and it responsible for audio, visual, sound and lighting system. This department has to be careful every time in order to avoid from unexpected accident during event. Every electronic material is double checked before event happen. IT/Corp com and signage is another department who prepares the sign from the entrance to the meeting area, and make a sign that in front of the meeting room to make it easier to the meeting and event attendees. Flower is normally requested by each event organizer and it is handed over to florist department. Keeping everywhere clean and every time clean, is the responsibilities of housekeeping department. After they receive the information from event department, they will arrange staff that will stand by around the meeting room area and rest room. Moreover, security department will allocate their uniform security staffs to stand by in the parking lot area for most of the event but not around the meeting room. In case VIP event, in house security will stand by around the event area during function. Front office staff is the person who helps to assist information to all the attendees of each event, so they have to know event that happened every day in the meeting and ballroom. All department cooperate and working together to make each event go smoothly without problem and able to satisfy customer. Due to smoothly working together in pre function set up, they can set up in the average time 30 minutes to 90 minutes for meeting or conference under 100 attendees. For special or big event accommodate more than 100 people, all department require maximum 3 hours or half of day to arrange for set up. This is the standard time with enough main power. However, it going to take more time than this standard time in case, any changes appear due the requirement of the event organizers.
For on-site event, all departments have to standby around the meeting area. In case there are any problem that might go wrong which is not expected, information is passed immediately to the person who responsible for the related problem especially, banquet and engineering department must stay closely with the event organizer because they are the key people in the operation. On site event involve the activities of moving people in and out and trouble shooting.
For the last stage is post event which NAGA World divides it into two sections. One is customer satisfaction evaluation which is special tool to evaluated meeting the effectiveness and the efficiency of their event operation. The result show that 21% of the customers are very satisfied and 62% of the customers judge the services provided by NAGA hotel as good and acceptable. However, another 17% of their customers are not really satisfied with the service. For the last activity is the staff meeting. They normally conduct only meeting twice a month for normal event, in the middle and the end of the month. In case there has a special event, NAGA world often conduct meeting with two stages one is pre event meeting and two is post event meeting. For staff meeting we can see that most of the MICE arrangements during the month are run in good process. However, it has some problem with negotiation between sale and event organizer or customer cause of unclear information and some problem with the taste of food cause of personality that why in staff meeting was provided the solution and strategy to stop and reduce it in order to prevent it happen again.
6.2 Conclusion Statement
Base on the statement above start from the pre event activity until the post event activity and through on the observation and interview together with feedback from the customers through banquet feedback form and finding through questionnaire. We can see that the process of MICE Coordination are good, Most of MICE arrangement conducted successfully with customer satisfaction and base on standard with norm and rule of event arrangement. These result has come because of all departments know how to work together and understand about the responsibility and duty for MICE arrangement obligation, Moreover, Naga World is a 5 star hotel that why everything need modern and high quality include equipment and environment which provide the standard and professional perception to customer. Furthermore, cause the value of human resource indicates that most of staffs are willing to work in the operation with self motivation which come from an encouragement and motivated by manager that is why their event operation with customer can run smoothly with very minimum problem and receive positive feedback from customers at the end of event. Customers’ feedback analysis shows us that 62% of customers are satisfied by services provided by NAGA, and another 21% are very satisfied. This statistic demonstrates good performance of NAGA world hotel in event arrangement service. However, there are still some gaps of cooperation between sales and marketing department with other food and beverage department regarding the information transferring. When the negotiation between sales & marketing with event organizer not 100% clear, it affected banquet department if any changes appear from the event organizers. It is not easy to make changes even though we can do and we have to do everything to satisfied customers. Moreover, some departments are aware of the information so late because they are missing to check the e-mail. This missing make them in rush in arrangement process. However, they have never experience any bad times or strong affects from this gap yet. NAGA world also face with challenges of negative feedback from the customer regarding taste of food and small parking space. We can see 17% of the customers are not very satisfied with the services.
6.3 Recommendation
Even NAGA World Hotel try to make everything went smoothly and follow on professional and standard but not everything is perfectly done. However, in the customer satisfaction measurement has shown good result for most of the service sections provided by NAGA World but they still have some lack points to improve among the cooperation between all department working together and services which is not really satisfied customer.
• Sales and marketing department is better to make the negotiation clear with the customers to avoid any changes required by the customers. Sales and marketing is the one who contacts with the customers since the first time so they can scan what is the needs of the customers. They can offer the better ideas or the standard set up to the event organizers. To do this, is able to minimize the changes from the event organizers when they see the set up is not really match to their needs.
• Another challenging of NAGA world hotel is taste of food satisfaction. We could see the statistic of banquet feedback form, 70% of the customers are not really satisfied by the food taste and quality. In fact, it the factor that is not easy to deal with because different people different perception and different favorites, but we can minimize dissatisfaction. NAGA are able to improve their food taste and quality by arrange food tasting program and invite all the potential customers to join. Food tasting is able to help NAGA world hotel to find out the one taste that is the acceptable to most customers.
• NAGA World Hotel better consider the personal service quality that they provide to customers. The current permanent staff that they have is not enough to gain excellent service customer satisfaction, because personally services in five stars hotel is suppose to be excellent. They better not just base on part time staffs to response to their urgent demand, otherwise urgent selected staffs might affect their services quality as well.
• One more thing that NAGA world hotel should improve is parking space. To respond to the increasing of the customers, NAGA better consider of widen the parking space to meet the demand of parking. Otherwise, how can NAGA handle big event which accommodate a lot of attendees. This is the critical point involve in event operation. NAGA will face with the next competitors who have bigger parking space as a competitive advantage.

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